Hi friends! I sort of went overboard researching for What When Wine  (and gave my editor quite a headache as a consequence.) In order to avoid turning that book into a phonebook, it only contains the sources literally discussed in the book. But have no fear! Here's the COMPLETE list of references for your research pleasure! (P.S. - If you have a university email, I highly recommend signing up for Research Gate!)


If you liked any of what you read in What When Wine, I wholeheartedly recommend you check out these books! (Disclaimer: While I may not agree with 100%  of their content, they've all provided valuable knowledge and perspectives.)

The Art of Fermentation: An In-Depth Exploration of Essential Concepts and Processes from around the World (Sandor Ellis Katz) 

The Bulletproof Diet: Lose Up to a Pound a Day, Reclaim Your Energy and Focus, and Upgrade Your Life (Davy Asprey) 

Head Strong: The Bulletproof Plan to Activate Untapped Brain Energy to Work Smarter and Think Faster - in Just Two Weeks (Davy Asprey) 

The Hungry Brain: Outsmarting the Instincts That Make Us Overeat (Stephan Guyenet)

The Paleo Solution: The Original Human Diet (Robb Wolf)

Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight by Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat (Paul Jaminet and Shou-Ching Jaminet)

The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers in "Healthy" Foods That Cause Disease and Weight Gain (Steven Gundry)

The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business  (Charles Duhigg)

The Salt Fix: Why Experts Got It All Wrong - and How Eating More Might Save Your Life (James J. DiNicolantonio)

The Upside of Stress: Why Stress Is Good for You, and How to Get Good at It  (Kelly McGonigal)

The Warrior Diet: Switch on Your Biological Powerhouse For High Energy, Explosive Strength, and a Leaner, Harder Body (Ori Hofmekler)

Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods (Sandor Ellix Katz)

​Wired to Eat: Turn Off Cravings, Rewire Your Appetite for Weight Loss, and Determine the Foods That Work for You (Robb Wolf)


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Proeyen, Karen Van, Karolina Szlufcik, Henri Nielens, Koen Pelgrim, Louise Deldicque, Matthijs Hesselink, Paul P. Van Veldhoven, and Peter Hespel. "Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.” 588, no. 21 (2010): 4289-302. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.196493.

Proeyen, Karen Van, et al. "Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet." The Journal of Physiology 588, no. 21 (2010): 4289–302. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.196493.

Shephard, R.j. "Training in the fasted state facilitates re-activation of eEF2 activity during recovery from endurance exercise." Yearbook of Sports Medicine 2012 (2012): 87-88. doi:10.1016/j.yspm.2011.07.01

Williams, Nancy I., Dana L. Helmreich, David B. Parfitt, Anne Caston-Balderrama, and Judy L. Cameron. "Evidence for a Causal Role of Low Energy Availability in the Induction of Menstrual Cycle Disturbances During Strenuous Exercise Training." Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey 57, no. 7 (2002): 440-42. doi:10.1097/00006254-200207000-00017.

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Blaak, Ellen. "Gender differences in fat metabolism." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 4, no. 6 (2001): 499-502. doi:10.1097/00075197-200111000-00006.

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Boateng, Laurene, Richard Ansong, William B. Owusu, and Matilda Steiner-Asiedu. "Coconut oil and palm oil's role in nutrition, health and national development: A review." Ghana Med J. 50, no. 3 (September 2016): 189-96. Accessed August 16, 2017.

Enig, Mary, and Beverly Teter. "Role of Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Weight Management." Obesity, 2012, 637-50. doi:10.1201/b12261-51.

Han, Jian Rong, Bin Deng, Jing Sun, Chao Gang Chen, Barbara E. Corkey, James L. Kirkland, Jing Ma, and Wen Guo. "Effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjects." Metabolism 56, no. 7 (2007): 985-91. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.03.005.

Law, Kim, Nizuwan Azman, Eshaifol Omar, Muhammad Musa, Narazah Yusoff, Siti Sulaiman, and Nik Hazlina Hussain. "The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients." Lipids in Health and Disease 13, no. 1 (2014): 139. doi:10.1186/1476-511x-13-139.

Marina, A. M., Y. B. Che Man, S. A. H. Nazimah, and I. Amin. "Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 60, no. Sup2 (2009): 114-23. doi:10.1080/09637480802549127.

Mccarty, Mark F., and James J. Dinicolantonio. "Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity." Open Heart 3, no. 2 (2016). doi:10.1136/openhrt-2016-000467.

Ronis, Martin J.J., January N. Baumgardner, Neha Sharma, Jamie Vantrease, Matthew Ferguson, Yudong Tong, Xianli Wu, Mario A. Cleves, and Thomas M. Badger. "Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease." Experimental Biology and Medicine 238, no. 2 (2013): 151-62. doi:10.1258/ebm.2012.012303.


Albert, Benjamin B., David Cameron-Smith, Paul L. Hofman, and Wayne S. Cutfield. "Oxidation of Marine Omega-3 Supplements and Human Health." BioMed Research International 2013 (2013): 1-8. doi:10.1155/2013/464921.

Anderson, Breanne M., and David Wl Ma. "Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?" Lipids in Health and Disease 8, no. 1 (2009): 33. doi:10.1186/1476-511x-8-33.

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Chang, C. Y., K. E. DS, and J. Y. Chen. "Essential fatty acids and human brain." Acta Neurol Taiwan 18, no. 4 (December 2009): 231–41.

Connor, W. E. "Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (January 2007): 171S-5S.

"Essential Fatty Acids." Linus Pauling Institute. May 2014. Accessed August 21, 2017. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids.

Cunnane, Stephen C. "Origins and evolution of the Western diet: implications of iodine and seafood intakes for the human brain." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82, no. 2 (August 2005): 483.

Halvorsen, Bente Lise, and Rune Blomhoff. "Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements." Food & Nutrition Research 55, no. 1 (2011): 5792. doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5792.

Hibbeln, J. R., and N. Salem, JR. "Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, no. 1 (July 1995): 1–9.

Higdon, Jane. "Essential Fatty Acids." Linus Pauling Institute. May 05, 2003. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids.

Jenkinson, A, et al. “Dietary Intakes of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Indices of Oxidative Stress in Human Volunteers .” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 53, no. 7, 1999, pp. 523–28.

Laugharne, J. D., J. E. Mellor, and M. Peet. "Fatty acids and schizophrenia." Lipids, March 1996, S163–5

Peat, Ray, Ph.D. "Fats and Degeneration." RayPeat.com. 2009. Accessed August 16, 2017. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/fats-degeneration3.shtml.

Peat, Ray, Ph. D. "The Great Fish Oil Experiment." RayPeat.com. 2007. Accessed August 16, 2017. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/fishoil.shtml.

Rosell, M. S., Z. Lloyd-Wright, P. N. Appelby, T. A. Sanders, N. E. Allen, and T. J. Key. "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: 327–34. Accessed August 2005.

Simopoulos, Artemis. "An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity." Nutrients 8, no. 3 (2016): 128. doi:10.3390/nu8030128.

Simopoulos, A. P. "Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, no. 3 (September 1991): 438-63.

Stoll, A. L., C.a. Locke, L.b. Marangell, and W. E. Severus. "Omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder: a review." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 60, no. 5–6 (1999): 329-37. doi:10.1016/s0952-3278(99)80008-8.

Stoll, Andrew L. The omega-3 connection: the groundbreaking omega-3 antidepression diet and brain program. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Turner, Rufus, Carlene H. Mclean, and Karen M. Silvers. "Are the health benefits of fish oils limited by products of oxidation?" Nutrition Research Reviews 19, no. 01 (2006): 53. doi:10.1079/nrr2006117.

Yehuda, Shlomo, Sharon Rabinovtz, Raphael L. Carasso, and David I. Mostofsky. "Essential Fatty Acids Preparation (Sr-3) Improves Alzheimers Patients Quality of Life." International Journal of Neuroscience 87, no. 3-4 (1996): 141–49. doi:10.3109/00207459609070833

Månsson, Helena Lindmark. "Fatty acids in bovine milk fat." Food & Nutrition Research 52, no. 1 (2008): 1821. doi:10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1821.

Miller, M J.S, et al. “Exaggerated Intestinal Histamine Release by Casein and Casein Hydrolysate but Not Whey Hydrolysate .” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology , vol. 26, no. 4, 1991, pp. 379–84.

Pal, Sebely, Keith Woodford, Sonja Kukuljan, and Suleen Ho. "Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose." Nutrients 7, no. 9 (2015): 7285-297. doi:10.3390/nu7095339.

Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, E., B. Jarmołowska, S. Krawczuk, E. Kostyra, H. Kostyra, and M. Iwan. "Contents of agonistic and antagonistic opioid peptides in different cheese varieties." International Dairy Journal19, no. 4 (2009): 258-63. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.10.011.

Sserunjogi, Mohammed L., Roger K. Abrahamsen, and Judith Narvhus. "A Review Paper: Current Knowledge of Ghee and Related Products." International Dairy Journal 8, no. 8 (1998): 677-88. doi:10.1016/s0958-6946(98)00106-x.


Baer, David J., Joseph T. Judd, Beverly A. Clevidence, and Russel P. Tracy. "Dietary Fatty Acids Affect Plasma Markers of Inflammation in Healthy Men Fed Controlled Diets: A Randomized Crossover Study." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 6 (2004): 969-73.

Chiu, Sally, Paul T. Williams, and Ronald M. Krauss. "Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial." Plos One 12, no. 2 (2017). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170664.

Siri-Tarino, P. W., Q. Sun, F. B. Hu, and R. M. Krauss. "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 3 (2010): 535-46. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725

Teicholz, Nina. "The Questionable Link Between Saturated Fat and Heart Disease." The Wall Street Journal. May 06, 2014. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-questionable-link-between-saturated-fat-and-heart-disease-1399070926.


Baer, David J., Joseph T. Judd, Beverly A. Clevidence, and Russel P. Tracy. "Dietary Fatty Acids Affect Plasma Markers of Inflammation in Healthy Men Fed Controlled Diets: A Randomized Crossover Study." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 6 (2004): 969-73.

Chiu, Sally, Paul T. Williams, and Ronald M. Krauss. "Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial." Plos One 12, no. 2 (2017). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170664.

Siri-Tarino, P. W., Q. Sun, F. B. Hu, and R. M. Krauss. "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 3 (2010): 535-46. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725

Teicholz, Nina. "The Questionable Link Between Saturated Fat and Heart Disease." The Wall Street Journal. May 06, 2014. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-questionable-link-between-saturated-fat-and-heart-disease-1399070926.


Aggett, Peter, J, Carlo Agostini, Irene Axelsson, Christine A. Edwards, Olivier Goulet, Olle Hernell, Berthold Koletzko, Harry N. Lafeber, Jean-Léopold Micheli, Kim F. Michaelsen, Jacques Rigo, Hania Zajewska, and Lawrence T. Weaver. "Nondigestible Carbohydrates in the Diets of Infants and Young Children: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 36, no. 3 (2003): 329-37.

Alberts, David S., María Elena Martínez, Denise J. Roe, José M. Guillén-Rodríguez, James R. Marshall, J. Barbara Van Leeuwen, Mary E. Reid, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Perla A. Vargas, A.b. Bhattacharyya, David L. Earnest, Dianne Parish, Kris Koonce, Lianne Fales, and Richard E. Sampliner. "Lack of Effect of a High-Fiber Cereal Supplement on the Recurrence of Colorectal Adenomas." New England Journal of Medicine 342, no. 16 (2000): 1156-162. doi:10.1056/nejm200004203421602

Batchelor, A. J., and Juliet E. Compston. "Reduced plasma half-life of radio-labelled 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in subjects receiving a high-fibre diet." British Journal of Nutrition 49, no. 02 (1983): 213. doi:10.1079/bjn19830027.

Baye, Kaleab, Claire Mouquet-Rivier, and Ean-Pierre Guyot. "The unresolved role of dietary fibers on mineral absorption." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57, no. 5 (May 2015). Accessed August 17, 2017. doi:10.1080/10408398.2014.953030.

Cummings, J. H., M. J. Hill, E. S. Bone, W. J. Branch, and D. J. Jenkins. "The effect of meat protein and dietary fiber on colonic function and metabolism. II. Bacterial metabolites in feces and urine." Am J Clin Nutr32, no. 10 (October 1979): 2094–101

Guyton, Arthur C., and John E. Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia.: Elsevier Saunders, 2006.

"Lack of Effect of a High-Fiber Cereal Supplement on the Recurrence of Colorectal Adenomas." New England Journal of Medicine 343, no. 13 (2000): 980. doi:10.1056/nejm200009283431321.

Reinhold, John G., Pedro L. García, and Luis Arias-Amado Pedro Garzón. "Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease." Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease, 1982, 117-32.

Rock, Cheryl L. "Primary Dietary Prevention: Is the Fiber Story Over?" Cancer Prevention Recent Results in Cancer Research: 171–177. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-37696-5_14.

Tan, Kok-Yang. "Fiber and colorectal diseases: Separating fact from fiction." World Journal of Gastroenterology 13, no. 31 (2007): 4161. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i31.4161.

Torre, M. A., R. Rodriguez, and F. Saura-Calixto. "Effects of Dietary Fiber and Phytic Acid on Mineral Availability." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 30, no. 1 (1991): 1-22. doi:10.1080/10408399109527545.


Anovski, Susan. "Sugar and Fat: Cravings and Aversions." The Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003): 835S-37S.

Araujo, Ivan E. De, Jozélia G. Ferreira, Luis A. Tellez, Xueying Ren, and Catherine W. Yeckel. "The gut–brain dopamine axis: A regulatory system for caloric intake." Physiology & Behavior 106, no. 3 (2012): 394–99. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.02.026.

Bartoshuk, Linda. "Learning to Like Foods." Association for Psychological Science. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/learning-to-like-foods#.WR5HNVKZOcY

Davis, Caroline. “From Passive Overeating to ‘Food Addiction’: A Spectrum of Compulsion and Severity.” ISRN Obesity (2013): 1–20, https://doi:10.1155/2013/435027.

Esteve, Montserrat, Immaculada Rafecas, Joséantonio Fernández-López, Xavier Remesar, and Marià Alemany. "Effect of a cafeteria diet on energy intake and balance in Wistar rats." Physiology & Behavior 56, no. 1 (1994): 65–71. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(94)90262-3.

Finlayson, G., E. Bryant, J.e. Blundell, and N.a. King. "Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food." Physiology & Behavior 97, no. 1 (2009): 62-67. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.02.002

Harvey, Kirsty, Eva Kemps, and Marika Tiggemann. "The nature of imagery processes underlying food cravings." British Journal of Health Psychology 10, no. 1 (2005): 49–56. doi:10.1348/135910704x14249.

Hassel, Jim. "The Flavorists: Tweaking tastes and creating cravings." Interview by Morley Safer. The Flavorists. Transcript. CBS News. November 27, 2011.

Johnson, Paul M., and Paul J. Kenny. "Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats." Nature Neuroscience 13, no. 5 (2010): 635-41. doi:10.1038/nn.2519

Lappalainen, R, et al. “Hunger/Craving Responses and Reactivity to Food Stimuli during Fasting and Dieting.” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 679–88.

Lowe, Michael R., and Allen S. Levine. "Eating Motives and the Controversy over Dieting: Eating Less Than Needed versus Less Than Wanted." Obesity Research 13, no. 5 (2005): 797-806. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.90

Macedo, Isabel Cristina de, Joice Soares de Freitas, and Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres."The Influence of Palatable Diets in Reward System Activation: A Mini Review." Hindawi: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. March 20, 2016. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7238679.

Massey, Anna, and Andrew J. Hill. "Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study." Appetite 58, no. 3 (2012): 781-85. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.020

Ong, Z. Y., and B. S. Muhlhausler. "Maternal ‘junk-food’ feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring." The FASEB Journal 25, no. 7 (2011): 2167–179. doi:10.1096/fj.10-178392.

Rada, P., N.m. Avena, and B.g. Hoebel. "Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell." Neuroscience 134, no. 3 (2005): 737-44. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.04.043.

Roitman, M. F. "Dopamine Operates as a Subsecond Modulator of Food Seeking." Journal of Neuroscience 24, no. 6 (2004): 1265-271. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3823-03.2004.

Schultz, Wolfram. "Predictive Reward Signal of Dopamine Neurons ." Journal of Neurophysiology 80, no. 1 (1998): 1-27.

Pelchat, M. L., A. Johnson, R. Chan, J. Valdez, and J. D. Ragland. "Images of desire: food-craving activation during fMRI." Neuroimage 23, no. 4 (December 2004): 1486-93.

Yamaguchi, Shizuko, and Kumiko Ninomiya. "Umami and Food Palatability." Flavor Chemistry, 1999, 423-31. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-4693-1_36.

FOODS (Chocolate, Vinegar, Spices, Honey)

Ajibola, Abdulwahid, Joseph P. Chamunorwa, and Kennedy H. Erlwanger. "Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth." Nutrition & Metabolism 9, no. 1 (2012): 61. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-61.

Allen, Robin R., LeAnn Carson, Catherine Kwik-Uribe, Ellen M. Evans, and John W. Erdman, Jr. "Daily Consumption of a Dark Chocolate Containing Flavanols and Added Sterol Esters Affects Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Normotensive Population with Elevated Cholesterol." The Journal of Nutrition 138, no. 4 (April 2008): 725-31.

Balboa-Castillo, Teresa, Esther López-García, Luz M. León-Muñoz, Raúl F. Pérez-Tasigchana, José Ramón Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, and Pilar Guallar-Castillón. "Chocolate and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Prospective Study." Plos One 10, no. 4 (2015). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123161.

Carter, Dee A., Shona E. Blair, Nural N. Cokcetin, Daniel Bouzo, Peter Brooks, Ralf Schothauer, and Elizabeth J. Harry. "Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative." Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016). doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00569.

Grassi, Davide, Christina Ippi, Stefano Necozione, Giovambattista Desideri, and Claudio Ferri. "Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, no. 3 (March 2005): 611–14.

Ho, Chin Wai, Azwan Mat Lazim, Shazrul Fazry, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain Zaki, and Seng Joe Lim. "Varieties, production, composition and health benefits of vinegars: A review." Food Chemistry 221 (2017): 1621-630. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.128.

Kaefer, Christine M., and John A. Milner. "The role of herbs and spices in cancer prevention." The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 19, no. 6 (2008): 347-61. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.11.003.

Kris-Etherton, Penny M., Kari D. Hecker, Andrea Bonanome, Stacie M. Coval, Amy E. Binkoski, Kirsten F. Hilpert, Amy E. Griel, and Terry D. Etherton. "Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer." The American Journal of Medicine 113, no. 9 (2002): 71-88. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(01)00995-0.

Molan, P. C. "The potential of honey to promote oral wellness." General Dentistry, Nov. & Dec. 2001, 584–9. Accessed August 8, 2017.

Molan, Peter C. "Why honey is effective as a medicine. 1. Its use in modern medicine." Bee World 80, no. 2 (1999): 80-92. doi:10.1080/0005772x.1999.11099430.

Osato, Michael S. "Osmotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Helicobacter pylori." Digestive Diseases and Sciences 44, no. 3 (1999): 462-64. doi:10.1023/a:1026676517213.

Scapagnini, Giovanni, Sergio Davinelli, Laura Di Renzo, Antonino De Lorenzo, Hector Olarte, Giuseppe Micali, Arrigo Cicero, and Salvador Gonzalez. "Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health." Nutrients 6, no. 8 (2014): 3202-213. doi:10.3390/nu6083202.

Sunni , Ahmed Al, and Rabia Latif. "Effects of chocolate intake on Perceived Stress; a Controlled Clinical Study." International Journal of Health Sciences 8, no. 4 (October 2014): 393–401.

Vinson, Joe A., and Matthew J. Motisi. "Polyphenol antioxidants in commercial chocolate bars: Is the label accurate?" Journal of Functional Foods 12 (2015): 526-29. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.022.


Anderson, K. E. "Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities." Poultry Science 90, no. 7 (2011): 1600-608. doi:10.3382/ps.2010-01289.

Bonwick, Graham, and Catherine S. Birch. Antioxidants in Fresh and Frozen Fruit and Vegetables: Impact Study of Varying Storage Conditions. Report. University of Chester. Accessed August 18, 2017. http://bfff.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Leatherhead-Chester-Antioxidant-Reports-2013.pdf. Client: British Frozen Food Federation; Pelican PR

Couvreur, S., C. Hurtaud, C. Lopez, L. Delaby, and J.l. Peyraud. "The Linear Relationship Between the Proportion of Fresh Grass in the Cow Diet, Milk Fatty Acid Composition, and Butter Properties." Journal of Dairy Science 89, no. 6 (2006): 1956-969. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(06)72263-9.

Crinnion, W. J. "Organic Foods Contain Higher Levels of Certain Nutrients, Lower Levels of Pesticides, and May Provide Health Bene ts for the Consumer." Altern Med Rev. 15, no. 1 (April 2010): 4-12.

Daley, Cynthia A., Amber Abbott, Patrick S. Doyle, Glenn A. Nader, and Stephanie Larson. "A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef." Nutrition Journal 9, no. 1 (2010). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-10.

Davis, Donald R. "Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition: What Is the Evidence?" Hort Science 44, no. 1 (February 2009): 15-19. Accessed August 10, 2017.

Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "CHAPTER 2: Effects of stress and injury on meat and by-product quality." FAO.org. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6909e/x6909e04.htm.

Frei, M. R., R. E. Berger, S. J. Dusch, V. Guel, J. R. Jauchem, J. H. Merritt, and M. A. Stedham. "Chronic exposure of cancer-prone mice to low-level 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation." Bioelectromagnetics. 19, no. 1 (1998): 20-31

Frei, Melvin R., James R. Jauchem, Steven J. Dusch, James H. Merritt, Rick E. Berger, and Michael A. Stedham. "Chronic, Low-Level (1.0 W/kg) Exposure of Mice Prone to Mammary Cancer to 2450 MHz Microwaves." Radiation Research 150, no. 5 (1998): 568. doi:10.2307/3579874

Frimpong, Samuel, Girma Gebresenbet, Emmanuel Bobobee, Elias Aklaku, and Ibrahim Hamdu. "Effect of Transportation and Pre-Slaughter Handling on Welfare and Meat Quality of Cattle: Case Study of Kumasi Abattoir, Ghana." Veterinary Sciences 1, no. 3 (2014): 174-91. doi:10.3390/vetsci1030174.

Halvorsen, Bente Lise, and Rune Blomhoff. "Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements." Food & Nutrition Research 55, no. 1 (2011): 5792. doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5792.

Hebeisen, D. F., F. Hoeflin, H. P. Reusch, E. Junker, and B. H. Lauterburg. "Increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in milk and platelet rich plasma of grass-fed cows." Int J Vitam Nutr Res 63, no. 3 (1993): 229-33.

"How to Decipher Egg Carton Labels." HumaneSociety.org. Accessed August 18, 2017. http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/confinement_farm/facts/guide_egg_labels.htm

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“Butyrate As Therapy: Fatty Acid Produced By Gut Bacteria Boosts Immune System.” News, Science 2.0. Accessed November 14, 2013. http://www.science20.com/news_articles/butyrate_therapy_fatty_acid_produced_gut_bacteria_boosts_immune_system-124388.

Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti. “New-Found Link Between Microbiota and Obesity.” World of Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology 6, no. 4 (2015): 110, https://doi:10.4291/wjgp.v6.i4.110.

Claus, Sandrine P., Hervé Guillou, and Sandrine Ellero-Simatos. "The gut microbiota: a major player in the toxicity of environmental pollutants?" Npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 2, no. 1 (2016). doi:10.1038/npjbiofilms.2016.3.

Remely, Marlene, et al. "Increased gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia after fasting: a pilot study." Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 127, no. 9–10 (2015): 394–98. doi:10.1007/s00508-015-0755-1.

Stanaway, Ian B., James C. Wallace, Ali Shojaie, William C. Griffith, Sungwoo Hong, Carly S. Wilder, Foad H. Green, Jesse Tsai, Misty Knight, Tomomi Workman, Eric M. Vigoren, Jeffrey S. Mclean, Beti Thompson, and Elaine M. Faustman. "Human Oral Buccal Microbiomes Are Associated with Farmworker Status and Azinphos-Methyl Agricultural Pesticide Exposure." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 83, no. 2 (2016). doi:10.1128/aem.02149-16.


Anson, R. M., Z. Guo, R. De Cabo, T. Iyun, M. Rios, A. Hagepanos, D. K. Ingram, M. A. Lane, and M. P. Mattson. "Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, no. 10 (2003): 6216-220. doi:10.1073/pnas.1035720100

Aksungar, Fehime B., Aynur E. Topkaya, and Mahmut Akyildiz. "Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein and Biochemical Parameters during Prolonged Intermittent Fasting." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 51, no. 1 (2007): 88-95. doi:10.1159/000100954.

Azevedo, Fernanda Reis De, Dimas Ikeoka, and Bruno Caramelli. "Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men." Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira59, no. 2 (2013): 167-73. doi:10.1016/j.ramb.2012.09.003.

Cahill, G.f. "Starvation in man." Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism 5, no. 2 (1976): 397-415. doi:10.1016/s0300-595x(76)80028-x.

Carlson, Michael G, et al. “Fuel and Energy Metabolism in Fasting Humans.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 60, no. 1, 1994, pp. 29–36.

Vollmers, Christopher, Shubhroz Gill, Luciano Ditacchio, Sandhya R. Pulivarthy, Hiep D. Le, and Satchidananda Panda. "Time of feeding and the intrinsic circadian clock drive rhythms in hepatic gene expression." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, no. 50 (2009): 21453-1458. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909591106.

Cheng, Chia-Wei et al. "Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression." Cell Stem Cell 14, no. 6 (2014): 810–23. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014.

CMAJ. "Intermittent Fasting: The Science Of Going Without." CMAJ News. Accessed April 8, 2013. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2013/04/08/cmaj.109-4451.full.pdf

Elia, M., C. Zed, G. Neale, and G. Livesey. "The energy cost of triglyceride-fatty acid recycling in nonobese subjects after an overnight fast and four days of starvation." Metabolism 36, no. 3 (1987): 251–55. doi:10.1016/0026-0495(87)90184-3.

Eshghinia, Samira, and Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh. "The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women." Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 12, no. 1 (2013): 4. doi:10.1186/2251-6581-12-4.

Faris, “Moez Al-Islam” E., Safia Kacimi, Refat A. Al-Kurd, Mohammad A. Fararjeh, Yasser K. Bustanji, Mohammad K. Mohammad, and Mohammad L. Salem. "Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects." Nutrition Research 32, no. 12 (2012): 947–55. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2012.06.021.

Goodrick, Charles L., Donald K. Ingram, Mark A. Reynolds, John R. Freeman, and Nancy L. Cider. "Effects of Intermittent Feeding Upon Growth and Life Span in Rats." Gerontology 28, no. 4 (2009): 233–41. doi:10.1159/000212538.

Halberg, N. "Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men." Journal of Applied Physiology 99, no. 6 (2005): 2128-136. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00683.2005termtnMedCtr. "Study finds routine periodic fasting is good for your health, and your heart." EurekAlert! April 03, 2011. Accessed August 15, 2017. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-04/imc-sfr033111.php.

Harvie, Michelle, Claire Wright, Mary Pegington, Debbie Mcmullan, Ellen Mitchell, Bronwen Martin, Roy G. Cutler, Gareth Evans, Sigrid Whiteside, Stuart Maudsley, Simonetta Camandola, Rui Wang, Olga D. Carlson, Josephine M. Egan, Mark P. Mattson, and Anthony Howell. "The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women." British Journal of Nutrition 110, no. 08 (2013): 1534-547. doi:10.1017/s0007114513000792.

Harvie, Michelle, et al. "The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women." British Journal of Nutrition 110, no. 08 (2013): 1534–547. doi:10.1017/s0007114513000792.

Hatori, Megumi, Christopher Vollmers, Amir Zarrinpar, Luciano Ditacchio, Eric A. Bushong, Shubhroz Gill, Mathias Leblanc, Amandine Chaix, Matthew Joens, James A.J. Fitzpatrick, Mark H. Ellisman, and Satchidananda Panda. "Time-Restricted Feeding without Reducing Caloric Intake Prevents Metabolic Diseases in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet." Cell Metabolism 15, no. 6 (2012): 848-60. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.019.

bronn, Leonie L., Steven R. Smith, Corby K. Martin, Stephen D. Anton, and Eric Revussin. "Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism." Am J Clin Nutr 81, no. 1 (January 2005): 69–73.

Ho, K. Y., J. D. Veldhuis, M. L. Johnson, R. Furlanetto, W. S. Evans, K. G. Alberti, and M. O. Thorner. "Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man." Journal of Clinical Investigation 81, no. 4 (1988): 968-75. doi:10.1172/jci113450.

Horne, B. D., J. B. Muhlestein, and J. L. Anderson. "Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 102, no. 2 (2015): 464-70. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.109553.

Horton, T J, and J O Hill. “Prolonged Fasting Significantly Changes Nutrient Oxidation and Glucose Tolerance after a Normal Mixed Meal.” Journal of Applied Physiology , vol. 90, no. 1, 2001, pp. 155–63.

Ibrahim, Wissam H. et al. "Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Serum Biochemical Markers of Cellular Damage in Healthy Subjects." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 53, no. 3–4 (2008): 175–81. doi:10.1159/000172979

Intermountain Medical Center. "Routine periodic fasting is good for your health, and your heart, study suggests." ScienceDaily (May 20, 2011). Accessed August 16, 2017. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110403090259.htm.

Kanazawa, Motoyori, and Shin Fukudo. "Effects of fasting therapy on irritable bowel syndrome." International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 13, no. 3 (2006): 214–20. doi:10.1207/s15327558ijbm1303_4.

Kim, Yong-Woon, and Philip J Scarpace. “Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Elevates Plasma Leptin without Increasing Fat Mass in Rats .” Physiology & Behavior , vol. 78, no. 3, 2003, pp. 459–64.

Klempel, Monica C., Cynthia M. Kroeger, and Krista A. Varady. "Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet." Metabolism 62, no. 1 (2013): 137-43. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2012.07.002.

Lavin, Desiree N., Jennifer J. Joesting, Gabriel S. Chiu, Morgan L. Moon, Jia Meng, Ryan N. Dilger, and Gregory G. Freund. "Fasting Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect on the Neuroimmune System Which a High-Fat Diet Prevents." Obesity 19, no. 8 (2011): 1586–594. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.73.

Longo, Valter D., and Mark P. Mattson. "Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications." Cell Metabolism 19, no. 2 (2014): 181-92. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.008

Mattson, M. P. and R. Wan. “Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 16(3), (2015): 129–137.

Soeters, M. R., P. B. Soeters, M. G. Schooneman, S. M. Houten, and J. A. Romijn. "Adaptive Reciprocity of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Human Short-term Starvation." AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism 303.12 (2012): E1397-1407. Http://classic.ajpendo.physiology.org. Web. 6 Sept. 2014. Soeters, M. R., P. B. Soeters, M. G. Schooneman, S. M. Houten, and J. A. Romijn. "Adaptive reciprocity of lipid and glucose metabolism in human short-term starvation." AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism 303, no. 12 (2012). doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00397.2012.

Teng, Nur Islami et al. "Efficacy of fasting calorie restriction on quality of life among aging men." Physiology & Behavior 104, no. 5 (2011): 1059–064. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.07.007.

Varady, K. A. "Alternate Day Fasting: Effects on Body Weight and Chronic Disease Risk in Humans and Animals." Comparative Physiology of Fasting, Starvation, and Food Limitation, (May 17, 2012): 395-408.

Varady, Krista A. et al. "Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial." Nutrition Journal 12, no. 1 (2013). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-146.

Varady, K. A. "Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?" Obesity Reviews 12, no. 7 (2011). doi:10.1111/j.1467-789x.2011.00873.x.

Varady, K. A. et al. "Modified alternate-day fasting regimens reduce cell proliferation rates to a similar extent as daily calorie restriction in mice." The FASEB Journal 22, no. 6 (2008): 2090–096. doi:10.1096/fj.07-098178.

Varady, K. A., S. Bhutani, E. C. Church, and M. C. Klempel. "Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 5 (2009): 1138–143. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28380.

Wan, Ruiqian, Simonetta Camandola, and Mark P. Mattson. "Intermittent Food Deprivation Improves Cardiovascular and Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress in Rats." Journal of Nutrition 133, no. 6 (June 1, 2003): 1921–29. Accessed August 16, 2017.


"A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus a Low-Fat Diet to Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial." Yearbook of Pediatrics 2006 (2006): 427-31. doi:10.1016/s0084-3954(07)70252-x.

Deans, Emily, M.D. "Your Brain on Ketones." Psychology Today. April 18, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolutionary-psychiatry/201104/your-brain-ketones.

Feinman, Richard D., and Mary Makowske. "Metabolic Syndrome and Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets in the Medical School Biochemistry Curriculum." Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 1, no. 3 (2003): 189-97. doi:10.1089/154041903322716660

Freeman, J M, et al. “The Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet---1998: A Prospective Evaluation of Intervention in 150 Children.” Pediatrics 102.6 , vol. 102, no. 6, 1998, pp. 1358–363.

Chowdhury, Golam Mi, Lihong Jiang, Douglas L. Rothman, and Kevin L. Behar. "The Contribution of Ketone Bodies to Basal and Activity-Dependent Neuronal Oxidation in Vivo." Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 34, no. 7 (2014): 1233-242. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.77

Guzmán, Manuel, and Cristina Blázquez. "Ketone body synthesis in the brain: possible neuroprotective effects." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 70, no. 3 (2004): 287–92. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.05.001.

Kesl, Shannon L., Angela M. Poff, Nathan P. Ward, Tina N. Fiorelli, Csilla Ari, Ashley J. Van Putten, Jacob W. Sherwood, Patrick Arnold, and Dominic P. D’Agostino. "Effects of exogenous ketone supplementation on blood ketone, glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels in Sprague–Dawley rats." Nutrition & Metabolism 13, no. 1 (2016). doi:10.1186/s12986-016-0069-y.

Lutas, Andrew, and Gary Yellen. "The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy." Trends in Neurosciences 36, no. 1 (2013): 32-40. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2012.11.005.

Paoli, Antonio, Gerardo Bosco, Enrico M. Camporesi, and Devanand Mangar. "Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship." Frontiers in Psychology 6 (2015). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00027

Poff, Angela, Nathan Ward, Dominic D’Agostino, and Thomas Seyfried. "Combination ketogenic diet, ketone supplementation, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits metastatic spread, slows tumor growth, and increases survival time in mice with metastatic cancer (123.7)." The FASEB Journal, 123.7rd ser., 28, no. 1 (April 2014).

Poff, Angela, Shannon Kesl, Nathan Ward, and Dominic D’Agostino. "Metabolic effects of exogenous ketone supplementation – an alternative or adjuvant to the ketogenic diet as a cancer therapy?" The FASEB Journal, 1167.2th ser., 3, no. 1 (April 2016).

Qiao, Yue, Zhaohua Gao, Yong Liu, Yan Cheng, Mengxiao Yu, Lingling Zhao, Yixiang Duan, and Yu Liu. "Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis." BioMed Research International 2014 (2014): 1-5. doi:10.1155/2014/869186.

Youm, Yun-Hee, Kim Y. Nguyen, Ryan W. Grant, Emily L. Goldberg, Monica Bodogai, Dongin Kim, Dominic Dagostino, Noah Planavsky, Christopher Lupfer, Thirumala D. Kanneganti, Seokwon Kang, Tamas L. Horvath, Tarek M. Fahmy, Peter A. Crawford, Arya Biragyn, Emad Alnemri, and Vishwa Deep Dixit. "The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated inflammatory disease." Nature Medicine, 2015. doi:10.1038/nm.3804.

Zeevi, David, Tal Korem, Niv Zmora, David Israeli, Daphna Rothschild, Adina Weinberger, Orly Ben-Yacov, Dar Lador, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Jotham Suez, Jemal Ali Mahdi, Elad Matot, Gal Malka, Noa Kosower, Michal Rein, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Lenka Dohnalová, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Rony Bikovsky, Zamir Halpern, Eran Elinav, and Eran Segal. "Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses." Cell 163, no. 5 (2015): 1079-094. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001.

Zeevi, David, Tal Korem, Niv Zmora, David Israeli, Daphna Rothschild, Adina Weinberger, Orly Ben-Yacov, Dar Lador, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Jotham Suez, Jemal Ali Mahdi, Elad Matot, Gal Malka, Noa Kosower, Michal Rein, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Lenka Dohnalová, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Rony Bikovsky, Zamir Halpern, Eran Elinav, and Eran Segal. "Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses." Cell 163, no. 5 (2015): 1079-094. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001.

MEAL FREQUENCY (Breakfast, Snacks, Night Eating, Etc.)

Arnal, Marie-Agnès, et al. "Protein Feeding Pattern Does Not Affect Protein Retention in Young Women." Journal of Nutrition vol. 130, no. 7 (July 1, 2000): 1700–704.

Bellisle, France, Regina Mcdevitt, and Andrew M. Prentice. "Meal frequency and energy balance." British Journal of Nutrition 77, no. S1 (1997). doi:10.1079/bjn19970104.

Betts, J. A., J. D. Richardson, E. A. Chowdhury, G. D. Holman, K. Tsintzas, and D. Thompson. "The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100, no. 2 (2014): 539-47. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.083402.

Brown, A. W., M. M. Bohan Brown, and D. B. Allison. "Belief beyond the evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, no. 5 (2013): 1298–308. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.064410.

Carlson, Olga, et al. "Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal-weight middle-aged men and women." Metabolism 56, no. 12 (2007): 1729–734. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.07.018.

Chapelot, D. “The Role of Snacking in Energy Balance: a Biobehavioral Approach." Journal of Nutrition 141, no. 1 (2010): 158–62. doi:10.3945/jn.109.114330.

Dallosso, H. M., P. R. Murgatroyd, and W. P. James. "Feeding frequency and energy balance in adult males." Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition 36C, no. 1 (January 1982): 25–39.

Dhurandhar, E. J. et al. "The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100, no. 2 (2014): 507–13. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.089573.

Ensinck, J. W., R. E. Vogel, E. C. Laschansky, and B. H. Francis. "Effect of ingested carbohydrate, fat, and protein on the release of somatostatin-28 in humans." Gastroenterology 98, no. 3 (March 1990). Accessed August 15, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1967585.

Geliebter, Allan et al. "Skipping Breakfast Leads to Weight Loss but Also Elevated Cholesterol Compared with Consuming Daily Breakfasts of Oat Porridge or Frosted Cornflakes in Overweight Individuals: A Randomised Controlled Trial." Journal of Nutritional Science 3 (2014): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4473164/

Gonnissen, H. K. et al. "Overnight energy expenditure determined by whole-body indirect calorimetry does not differ during different sleep stages." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, no. 4 (2013): 867–71. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.067884.

Graaf, Cees de. “Effects of Snacks on Energy Intake: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Appetite 47, no. 1 (2006): 18–23, https://doi:10.1016/j.appet.2006.02.007.

Kanarek, Robin. “Psychological Effects of Snacks and Altered Meal Frequency.” British Journal of Nutrition 77, no. S1 (1997): S105.

Kinsey, Amber W. et al. "Influence of night-time protein and carbohydrate intake on appetite and cardiometabolic risk in sedentary overweight and obese women." British Journal of Nutrition 112, no. 03 (2014): 320–27. doi:10.1017/s0007114514001068.

Kinsey, Amber and Michael Ormsbee. "The Health Impact of Nighttime Eating: Old and New Perspectives." Nutrients 7, no. 4 (2015): 2648–662. doi:10.3390/nu7042648.

Kral, T. V., L. M. Whiteford, M. Heo, and M. S. Faith. "Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93, no. 2 (2010): 284–91. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.000505.

Levitsky, David A. and Carly R. Pacanowski. "Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake." Physiology & Behavior 119 (2013): 9–16. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.006.

Martin, Ambroise et al. "Is advice for breakfast consumption justified? Results from a short-term dietary and metabolic experiment in young healthy men." British Journal of Nutrition 84, no. 03 (2000): 337–44. doi:10.1017/s0007114500001616.

Mattson, Mark P. " Energy Intake, Meal Frequencty, And Health: A Neurobiological Perspective." Annual Review of Nutrition 25, no. 1 (2005): 237-60. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092526.

Mattson, Mark P., Wenzhen Duan, and Zhihong Guo. "Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms." Journal of Neurochemistry 84, no. 3 (2003): 417-31. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01586.x

Munsters, Marjet J. M., and Wim H. M. Saris. "Effects of Meal Frequency on Metabolic Profiles and Substrate Partitioning in Lean Healthy Males." PLoS ONE 7, no. 6 (2012). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038632.

Murphy, Michelle, and Julian Mercer. "Intermittent Feeding Schedules—Behavioural Consequences and Potential Clinical Significance." Nutrients 6, no. 3 (2014): 985-1002. doi:10.3390/nu6030985

Natalucci, G., S. Riedl, A. Gleiss, T. Zidek, and H. Frisch. "Spontaneous 24-h ghrelin secretion pattern in fasting subjects: maintenance of a meal-related pattern." European Journal of Endocrinology 152, no. 6 (2005): 845–50. doi:10.1530/eje.1.01919

Nedeltcheva, Arlet V. et al. "Insufficient Sleep Undermines Dietary Efforts to Reduce Adiposity." Annals of Internal Medicine 153, no. 7 (2010): 435. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-7-201010050-00006.

Nonino-Borges, Carla Barbosa, Ricardo Martins Borges, Marinella Bavaresco, Vivian M.m. Suen, Ayrton Custódio Moreira, and Júlio Sérgio Marchini. "Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women." Nutrition 23, no. 5 (2007): 385–91. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2007.02.007.

Ravussin, E. et al. “Determinants of 24-Hour Energy Expenditure in Man. Methods and Results Using a Respiratory Chamber.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 78, no. 6 (1986): 1568–578, https://doi.10.1172/jci112749.

Reynolds, N. C., and R. Montgomery. "Using the Argonne diet in jet lag prevention: deployment of troops across nine time zones." Mil Med 167, no. 6 (June 2002): 451–3.

Seyfried, Thomas N. and Purna Mukherjee. Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 1 (2005): 30. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-30.

Sofer, Sigal et al. "Greater Weight Loss and Hormonal Changes After 6 Months Diet With Carbohydrates Eaten Mostly at Dinner." Obesity 19, no. 10 (2011): 2006–014. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.48.

Taylor, M. A., and J. S. Garrow. "Compared with nibbling, neither gorging nor a morning fast affect short-term energy balance in obese patients in a chamber calorimeter." International Journal of Obesity 25, no. 4 (2001): 519–28. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801572.

Weinsier, R. L. et al. "Energy Expenditure and Free-living Physical Activity in Black and White Women: Comparison before and after Weight Loss." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 5 (2000): 1138–46.

Wilhelmine P. H. G. Verboeket-Van De Venne, Klaas R. Westerterp, and Arnold D. M. Kester. "Effect of the pattern of food intake on human energy metabolism." British Journal of Nutrition70, no. 01 (1993): 103. doi:10.1079/bjn19930108.

Williams, P. G. "The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base." Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 5, no. 5 (2014). doi:10.3945/an.114.006247.


Levine, J. A. "Nonexercise activity thermogenesis ? liberating the life-force." Journal of Internal Medicine 262, no. 3 (2007): 273-87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01842.x

Loeffelholz, Christian von. “The Role of Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis in Human Obesity.” Endotext (June 5, 2014).

Nieman, D.c. "Nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure is maintained with structured exercise and implicates a compensatory increase in energy intake." Yearbook of Sports Medicine 2012 (2012): 189-90. doi:10.1016/j.yspm.2011.09.010.


Berg, Christina et al. “Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population.” Appetite 52, no. 1 (2009): 21–26. Accessed August 12, 2017.

Bouchard, Claude et al. “The Response to Long-Term Overfeeding in Identical Twins.” New England Journal of Medicine 322, no. 21 (1990): 1477–482, https://doi:10.1056/nejm199005243222101.

Loveman, E. et al. "The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of long-term weight management schemes for adults: a systematic review." Health Technology Assessment 15, no. 2 (2011): doi:10.3310/hta15020.

Ogden, Cynthia L., et al. "Trends in Obesity Prevalence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 Through 2013-2014." Journal of American Medical Association 315, no. 21 (2016): 2292. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.6361.

Rettner, Rachael. "Obesity Rate in U.S. Women Climbs to 40%." LiveScience. June 07, 2016. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.livescience.com/54994-obesity-rate-women.html.

Rodin, Judith. "Insulin levels, hunger, and food intake: An example of feedback loops in body weight regulation." Health Psychology 4, no. 1 (1985): 1-24. doi:10.1037//0278-6133.4.1.1

Wadden, T. A., G. D. Foster, K. A. Letizia, and J. L. Mullen. "Long-term Effects of Dieting on Resting Metabolic Rate in Obese Outpatients." JAMA 264, no. 6 (1990): 707–11.

Winocur, Gordon, Carol E. Greenwood, Gerardo G. Piroli, Claudia A. Grillo, Leah R. Reznikov, Lawrence P. Reagan, and Bruce S. Mcewen. "Memory impairment in obese Zucker rats: An investigation of cognitive function in an animal model of insulin resistance and obesity." Behavioral Neuroscience 119, no. 5 (2005): 1389-395. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.119.5.1389

PALEO (Hunter-Gatherer Diet)

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