• Home  / 
  • What When Wine References

Hi friends! I sort of went overboard researching for What When Wine  (and gave my editor quite a headache as a consequence.) In order to avoid turning that book into a phonebook, it only contains the sources literally discussed in the book. But have no fear! Here's the COMPLETE list of references for your research pleasure! (P.S. - If you have a university email, I highly recommend signing up for Research Gate!)


If you liked any of what you read in What When Wine, I wholeheartedly recommend you check out these books! (Disclaimer: While I may not agree with 100%  of their content, they've all provided valuable knowledge and perspectives.)

The Art of Fermentation: An In-Depth Exploration of Essential Concepts and Processes from around the World (Sandor Ellis Katz) 

The Bulletproof Diet: Lose Up to a Pound a Day, Reclaim Your Energy and Focus, and Upgrade Your Life (Davy Asprey) 

Head Strong: The Bulletproof Plan to Activate Untapped Brain Energy to Work Smarter and Think Faster - in Just Two Weeks (Davy Asprey) 

The Hungry Brain: Outsmarting the Instincts That Make Us Overeat (Stephan Guyenet)

The Paleo Solution: The Original Human Diet (Robb Wolf)

Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight by Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat (Paul Jaminet and Shou-Ching Jaminet)

The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers in "Healthy" Foods That Cause Disease and Weight Gain (Steven Gundry)

The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business  (Charles Duhigg)

The Salt Fix: Why Experts Got It All Wrong - and How Eating More Might Save Your Life (James J. DiNicolantonio)

The Upside of Stress: Why Stress Is Good for You, and How to Get Good at It  (Kelly McGonigal)

The Warrior Diet: Switch on Your Biological Powerhouse For High Energy, Explosive Strength, and a Leaner, Harder Body (Ori Hofmekler)

Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods (Sandor Ellix Katz)

​Wired to Eat: Turn Off Cravings, Rewire Your Appetite for Weight Loss, and Determine the Foods That Work for You (Robb Wolf)


Bartke, A. "Insulin and Aging." Cell Cycle 7, no. 21 (2008): 3338-43.

Carlson, Anton J., and Frederick Hoelzel. "Apparent Prolongation of the Life Span of Rats by Intermittent Fasting." The Journal of Nutrition 31, no. 3 (1946): 363-75.

Dryden, Jim. "Calorie restriction appears better than exercise at slowing primary aging." The Source. May 31, 2006. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://source.wustl.edu/2006/05/calorie-restriction-appears-better-than-exercise-at-slowing-primary-aging/.

Hine, Christopher, and James R. Mitchell. "Saying No to Drugs: Fasting Protects Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Chemotherapy and Aging." Cell Stem Cell 14, no. 6 (2014): 704-05. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.05.016

Honjoh, Sakiko, Takuya Yamamoto, Masaharu Uno, and Eisuke Nishida. "Signalling through RHEB-1 mediates intermittent fasting-induced longevity in C. elegans." Nature 457, no. 7230 (2008): 726-30. doi:10.1038/nature07583

Martin, Bronwen, Mark P. Mattson, and Stuart Maudsley. "Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging." Ageing Research Reviews 5, no. 3 (2006): 332-53. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2006.04.002

Rizvi, S. I., and P. K. Maurya. "Alterations in antioxidant enzymes during aging in humans." Mol Biotechnol 37, no. 1 (September 2007): 58–61. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914165.

Rizza, Wanda, Nicola Veronese, and Luigi Fontana. "What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?" Ageing Research Reviews 13 (2014): 38-45. doi:10.1016/j.arr.2013.11.002.

Roth, G. S. "Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction May Predict Longevity in Humans." Science 297, no. 5582 (2002): 811. doi:10.1126/science.1071851.

Wegman, Martin P. et al. "Practicality of Intermittent Fasting in Humans and its Effect on Oxidative Stress and Genes Related to Aging and Metabolism." Rejuvenation Research 18, no. 2 (2015): 162–72. doi:10.1089/rej.2014.1624.


Agarwal, D. P. "Cardioprotective Effects Of Light-Moderate Consumption Of Alcohol: A Review Of Putative Mechanisms." Alcohol and Alcoholism 37, no. 5 (2002): 409–15. doi:10.1093/alcalc/37.5.409.

Arif, Ahmed A. and James E. Rohrer. "Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994." BMC Public Health 5, no. 1 (2005). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-5-126.

Arima, Hisatomi, Yutaka Kiyohara, Isao Kato, Yumihiro Tanizaki, Michiaki Kubo, Hiromitsu Iwamoto, Keiichi Tanaka, Isao Abe, and Masatoshi Fujishima. "Alcohol reduces insulin–hypertension relationship in a general population The Hisayama study." Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 55, no. 9 (2002): 863-69. doi:10.1016/s0895-4356(02)00441-9.

Balodis, Iris M., Marc N. Potenza, and Mary C. Olmstead. "Binge drinking in undergraduates: relationships with sex, drinking behaviors, impulsivity, and the perceived effects of alcohol." Behavioural Pharmacology 20, no. 5–6 (2009): 518–26. doi:10.1097/fbp.0b013e328330c7

Berridge, Kent C. "Food reward: Brain substrates of wanting and liking." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 20, no. 1 (1996): 1–25. doi:10.1016/0149-7634(95)00033-b.

Boelsterli, Urs A., Matthew R. Redinbo, and Kyle S. Saitta. "Multiple NSAID-Induced Hits Injure the Small Intestine: Underlying Mechanisms and Novel Strategies." Toxicological Sciences 131, no. 2 (2012): 654–67. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfs310

Breslow, Rosalind A., Ph.D., M.P.H., R.D, and Kenneth J. Mukamal, M.D. "Measuring the Burden— Current and Future Research trends: Results From the nIAAA Expert Panel on Alcohol and Chronic disease Epidemiology." NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism . Accessed August 16, 2017. https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arcr352/250-259.pdf.

Calissendorff, Jan, Olle Danielsson, Kerstin Brismar, and Sven Röjdmark. "Alcohol ingestion does not affect serum levels of peptide YY but decreases both total and octanoylated ghrelin levels in healthy subjects." Metabolism 55, no. 12 (2006): 1625-629. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2006.08.003

Calissendorff, J., O. Danielsson, K. Brismar, and S. Rojdmark. "Inhibitory effect of alcohol on ghrelin secretion in normal man." European Journal of Endocrinology 152, no. 5 (2005): 743-47. doi:10.1530/eje.1.01905.

Carrigan, Matthew A. et al. "Hominids adapted to metabolize ethanol long before human-directed fermentation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 2 (2014): 458-63. doi:10.1073/pnas.1404167111.

Chrieks, Ilse C. "Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being." Ph. D. thesis, Wageningen University, 2015. December 29, 2015. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283406233_Influence_of_moderate_alcohol_consumption_on_emotional_and_physical_well-being.

Cohen, S, et al. “Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Susceptibility to the Common Cold.” American Journal of Public Health , vol. 83, no. 9, 1993, pp. 1277–283.

Djousse, L., I-M. Lee, J. E. Buring, and J. M. Gaziano. "Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death in Women: Potential Mediating Mechanisms." Circulation 120, no. 3 (2009): 237–44. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.108.832360.

Dorn, J. M., K. Hovey, P. Muti, J. L. Freudenheim, M. Russell, T. H. Nochajski, and M. Trevisan. "Alcohol drinking patterns differentially affect central adiposity as measured by abdominal height in women and men." J Nutr. 133, no. 8 (August 2003): 2655-62.

Dudley, R. "Ethanol, Fruit Ripening, and the Historical Origins of Human Alcoholism in Primate Frugivory." Integrative and Comparative Biology 44, no. 4 (2004): 315–23. doi:10.1093/icb/44.4.315.

Espeland, M. A. et al. "Association between alcohol intake and domain-specific cognitive function in older women." Neuroepidemiology 27, no. 1 (May 24, 2006): 1–12. Accessed August 17, 2017: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16717476.

Gea, Alfredo et al. "Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study." BMC Medicine 11, no. 1 (2013). doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-192.

Gepner, Yftach et al. "Effects of Initiating Moderate Alcohol Intake on Cardiometabolic Risk in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes." Annals of Internal Medicine 163, no. 8 (2015): 569. doi:10.7326/m14-1650.

Gaziano, J.michael, Thomas A. Gaziano, Robert J. Glynn, Howard D. Sesso, Umed A. Ajani, Meir J. Stampfer, Joann E. Manson, Julie E. Buring, and Charles H. Hennekens. "Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in the physicians’ health study enrollment cohort." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 35, no. 1 (2000): 96-105. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(99)00531-8

Guthrie, George D., K. Jeffrey Myers, Edward J. Gesser, Gary W. White, and Jack R. Koehl. "Alcohol as a Nutrient: Interactions Between Ethanol and Carbohydrate." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 14, no. 1 (1990): 17-22. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.1990.tb00439.x.

Harman, D. "Free radical theory of aging: an update: increasing the functional life span." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1067 (May 2006): 10–21. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16803965.

Jéquier, Eric. "Alcohol intake and body weight: a paradox1." Am J Clin Nutr 69, no. 2 (February 1999): 173-74.

Jimenez, Monik et al. "Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Stroke in Women." Stroke 43, no. 4 (2012): 939-45. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.111.639435.

Joslyn, G. et al. "Chromosome 15q25.1 genetic markers associated with level of response to alcohol in humans." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 51 (2008): 20368–0373. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810970105.

Klatsky, A. L., M. A. Armstrong, G. D. Friedman, and S. Sidney. "Alcohol drinking and risk of hospitalization for ischemic stroke." Am J Cardiol 88, no. 6 (September 15, 2001): 703–6. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11564405.

Kokavec, Anna. "Is decreased appetite for food a physiological consequence of alcohol consumption?" Appetite 51, no. 2 (2008): 233-43. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.03.011.

Kwo, Paul Y. et al "Gender differences in alcohol metabolism: Relationship to liver volume and effect of adjusting for body mass." Gastroenterology 115, no. 6 (1998): 1552–557. doi:10.1016/s0016-5085(98)70035-6.

Liangpunsakul, Suthat. "Relationship between alcohol intake and dietary pattern: Findings from NHANES III." World Journal of Gastroenterology 16, no. 32 (2010): 4055. doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i32.4055

Lieber, C. S. "Perspectives: do alcohol calories count?" Am J Clin Nutr 54, no. 6 (1991): 976-82. Accessed August 16, 2017.

Lieber, Charles S. "The microsomal ethanol oxidizing system: its role in ethanol and xenobiotic metabolism." Biochemical Society Transactions 16, no. 3 (1988): 232-39. doi:10.1042/bst0160232.

Lipton, R. I. "The Effect of Moderate Alcohol Use on the Relationship between Stress and Depression." American Journal of Public Health 84, no. 12 (1994): 1913-917.

Lobo, Ingrid A., and R. Adron Harris. "GABAA receptors and alcohol." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 90, no. 1 (2008): 90-94. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2008.03.006.

Mccarty, M.F. "Does regular ethanol consumption promote insulin sensitivity and leanness by stimulating AMP-activated protein kinase?" Medical Hypotheses 57, no. 3 (2001): 405–07. doi:10.1054/mehy.2001.1404.

Milton, K. "Ferment in the Family Tree: Does a Frugivorous Dietary Heritage Influence Contemporary Patterns of Human Ethanol Use?" Integrative and Comparative Biology 44, no. 4 (2004): 304-14. doi:10.1093/icb/44.4.304

Mojzer, Eva Brglez et al. "Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects." Molecules 21, no. 7 (2016): 901. doi:10.3390/molecules21070901.

Murgatroyd, P. R., M. L. H. M. Van De Ven, G. R. Goldberg, and A. M. Prentice. "Alcohol and the regulation of energy balance: overnight effects on diet-induced thermogenesis and fuel storage." British Journal of Nutrition 75, no. 01 (1996): 33. doi:10.1079/bjn1996010

Nixon, Sara Jo. "Cognitive Deficits in Alcoholic Women." Alcohol Health And Research World , 1994, 228-32.

Oneta, C. M. et al. "First pass metabolism of ethanol is strikingly influenced by the speed of gastric emptying." Gut 43, no. 5 (1998): 612–19. doi:10.1136/gut.43.5.612.

Parlesak, A. "Gastric Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity in Man: Influence of Gender, Age, Alcohol Consumption and Smoking in a Caucasian Population." Alcohol and Alcoholism 37, no. 4 (2002): 388–93. doi:10.1093/alcalc/37.4.388.

Romeo, Stefano et al. "Genetic variation in PNPLA3 confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease." Nature Genetics 40, no. 12 (2008): 1461–465. doi:10.1038/ng.257.

Schrieks, Ilse C. et al. "The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial." PLoS ONE 9, no. 1 (2014). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086199.

Scholey, A. B., and K. A. Fowles. "Retrograde enhancement of kinesthetic memory by alcohol and by glucose." Neurobiol Learn Men 78, no. 2 (September 2002): 477–83. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12431432.

Shai, I., E. B. Rimm, M. B. Schulze, N. Rifai, M. J. Stampfer, and F. B. Hu. "Moderate alcohol intake and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction among diabetic men." Diabetologia.47, no. 10 (October 2004): 1760–7. Accessed August 17, 2017.

Sonko, B. J., A. M. Prentice, P. R. Murgatroyd, G. R. Goldberg, M. L. Van De Ven, and W. A. Coward. "Effects of alcohol on postmeal fat storage." Am J Clin Nutr 59, no. 3 (March 1994): 619-25. Accessed August 16, 2017.

Stampfer, Meir J., Jae Hee Kang, Jennifer Chen, Rebecca Cherry, and Francine Grodstein. "Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Cognitive Function in Women." New England Journal of Medicine 352, no. 3 (2005): 245–53. doi:10.1056/nejmoa041152

Suter, P. M., E. Jequier, and Y. Schutz. "Effect of Ethanol on Energy Expenditure ." American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism 2nd ser 266, no. 4 (1994): R1204-12.

Thomasson, Holly R. "Gender Differences in Alcohol Metabolism." Recent Developments in Alcoholism (2002): 163–79. doi:10.1007/0-306-47138-8_9.

Tobon, F. and E. Mezey. "Effect of ethanol administration on hepatic ethanol and drug-metabolizing enzymes and on rates of ethanol degradation." Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 77, no. 1 (January 1971): 110–21.

Toshikuni, Nobuyuki. "Clinical differences between alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease." World Journal of Gastroenterology 20, no. 26 (2014): 8393. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i26.8393.

Urbano-Márquez, Alvaro. "The Greater Risk of Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy and Myopathy in Women Compared With Men." JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 274, no. 2 (1995): 149. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530020067034.

Wang, Q., A. Sun et al. "Ethanol preconditioning protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain damage: Role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 43, no. 7 (2007): 1048–060. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.06.018

Webb, Amy et al. "The Investigation into CYP2E1 in Relation to the Level of Response to Alcohol Through a Combination of Linkage and Association Analysis." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 35, no. 1 (2010): 10–18. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01317.x.

Weyerer, S. et al. "Current alcohol consumption and its relationship to incident dementia: results from a 3-year follow-up study among primary care attenders aged 75 years and older." Age and Ageing 40, no. 4 (2011): 456–63. doi:10.1093/ageing/afr007.

Yeomans, Martin R. "Alcohol, appetite and energy balance: Is alcohol intake a risk factor for obesity?" Physiology & Behavior 100, no. 1 (2010): 82-89. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.012.

Yeomans, M. R., S. Caton, and M. M. Hetherington. "Alcohol and food intake." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care 6, no. 6 (November 2003): 639–44. Accessed August 16, 2017.

Zakhari,, Samir, Ph.D. "Overview: How Is Alcohol Metabolized by the Body?" National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Accessed August 16, 2017. https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh294/245-255.htm.

Zuccala, Giuseppe et al. "Dose-Related Impact of Alcohol Consumption on Cognitive Function in Advanced Age: Results of a Multicenter Survey." Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 25, no. 12 (2001): 1743–748. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2001.tb02185.x.


Davis, T. R. "Chamber cold acclimatization in man." J Appl Physiol 16 (November 1961): 1011-5.

Siems, W. G., R. Brenke, O. Sommerburg, and T. Grune. "Improved antioxidative protection in winter swimmers." QJM. 92, no. 4 (April 1999): 193-8.

Shevchuk, Nikolai A., and Sasa Radoja. "Possible stimulation of anti-tumor immunity using repeated cold stress: a hypothesis." Infectious Agents and Cancer2, no. 1 (2007): 20. doi:10.1186/1750-9378-2-20.

Shevchuk, Nikolai A. "Possible use of repeated cold stress for reducing fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome: a hypothesis." Behavioral and Brain Functions3, no. 1 (2007): 55. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-3-55.

Lans, Anouk A.j.j. Van Der, Joris Hoeks, Boudewijn Brans, Guy H.e.j. Vijgen, Mariëlle G.w. Visser, Maarten J. Vosselman, Jan Hansen, Johanna A. Jörgensen, Jun Wu, Felix M. Mottaghy, Patrick Schrauwen, and Wouter D. Van Marken Lichtenbelt. "Cold acclimation recruits human brown fat and increases nonshivering thermogenesis." Journal of Clinical Investigation 123, no. 8 (2013): 3395-403. doi:10.1172/jci68993.


Asif, Mohammad. "The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern." Journal of Education and Health Promotion 3, no. 1 (2014): 1. doi:10.4103/2277-9531.127541.

Brandt, Mark, PhD. "Chapter 5: Endocrine Regulation of Glucose Metabolism." Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology—Department of Chemistry, 2002. https://www.rose-hulman.edu/~brandt/Chem330/EndocrineNotes/Chapter_5_Glucose.pdf.

"Diabetes: Differences Between Type 1 and 2 - Topic Overview." WebMD. Accessed August 21, 2017. http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/tc/diabetes-differences-between-type-1-and-2-topic-overview.

Jenkins, David J. A., et al. “Glycemic Index: Overview of Implications in Health and Disease.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 1 (2002): pp. 266S–73S

Zeevi, David, Tal Korem, Niv Zmora, David Israeli, Daphna Rothschild, Adina Weinberger, Orly Ben-Yacov, Dar Lador, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Jotham Suez, Jemal Ali Mahdi, Elad Matot, Gal Malka, Noa Kosower, Michal Rein, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Lenka Dohnalová, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Rony Bikovsky, Zamir Halpern, Eran Elinav, and Eran Segal. "Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses." Cell 163, no. 5 (2015): 1079-094. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001.

Tsenkova, Vera K., Deborah Carr, Christopher L. Coe, and Carol D. Ryff. "Anger, adiposity, and glucose control in nondiabetic adults: findings from MIDUS II." Journal of Behavioral Medicine 37, no. 1 (2012): 37–46. doi:10.1007/s10865-012-9460-y.


Alirezaei, Mehrdad, Christopher C. Kemball, Claudia T. Flynn, Malcolm R. Wood, J. Lindsay Whitton, and William B. Kiosses. "Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy." Autophagy 6, no. 6 (2010): 702-10. doi:10.4161/auto.6.6.12376.

Castren, E., V. Voikar, and T. Rantamaki. "Role of neurotrophic factors in depression." Current Opinion in Pharmacology 7, no. 1 (2007): 18-21.

Fond, Guillaume, Alexandra Macgregor, Marion Leboyer, and Andreas Michalsen. "Fasting in mood disorders: neurobiology and effectiveness. A review of the literature." Psychiatry Research 209, no. 3 (2013): 253-58. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.12.018.

Ghahremani , M., A. Delshad Noghabi, and J. Tavakolizadeh. "Evaluating the effect of fasting on mental health." J Gonabad Univ Med Sci Health Serv: 1379-1.

Hayward, Sara, Jordan Outlaw, Stacie Urbina, Bailey Burks, Josh Holt, Matt Stone, Alena Regeski, Maegon Saur, Jennifer Ander, Lem Taylor, Cliffa Foster, and Colin Wilborn. "Effects of intermittent fasting on markers of body composition and mood state." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 11, no. Suppl 1 (2014). doi:10.1186/1550-2783-11-s1-p25.

König, Bettina, Christine Rauer, Susann Rosenbaum, Corinna Brandsch, Klaus Eder, and Gabriele I. Stangl. "Fasting Upregulates PPAR Target Genes in Brain and Influences Pituitary Hormone Expression in a PPAR Dependent Manner." PPAR Research 2009 (2009): 1-9. doi:10.1155/2009/801609

Li, Liaoliao, Zhi Wang, and Zhiyi Zuo. "Chronic Intermittent Fasting Improves Cognitive Functions and Brain Structures in Mice." PLoS ONE8, no. 6 (2013). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066069.

Maryam, Javanbakht, Ziaee S. Alireza, Homam S. Mehran, and Rahnama Ali. "The effect of Ramadan fasting on students' self-esteem and mental health." The Quarterly Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 44th ser., 11, no. 4 (Winter 2010): 266-73. Accessed August 12, 2017.

Masuda, R., J.w. Monahan, and Y. Kashiwaya. "D-β-hydroxybutyrate is neuroprotective against hypoxia in serum-free hippocampal primary cultures." Journal of Neuroscience Research 80, no. 4 (2005): 501-09. doi:10.1002/jnr.20464.

Mousavi, Seyed Ali, Mansour Rezaei, Sahar A. Baghni, and Maryam Seifi. "Effect of fasting on mental health in the general population of Kermanshah, Iran." Journal of Fasting and Health 2, no. 2 (Spring 2014): 65–70.

Owen, O. E., A. P. Morgan, H. G. Kemp, J. M. Sullivan, M. G. Herrera, and G. F. Cahill. "Brain Metabolism during Fasting*." Journal of Clinical Investigation 46, no. 10 (1967): 1589-595. doi:10.1172/jci105650.

Seyfried, Thomas N., and Purna Mukherjee. "Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer: review and hypothesis.”

Thaler, Sebastian, Tomasz J. Choragiewicz, Robert Rejdak, Michal Fiedorowicz, Waldemar A. Turski, Maria Tulidowicz-Bielak, Eberhart Zrenner, Frank Schuettauf, and Tomasz Zarnowski. "Neuroprotection by Acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate against NMDA-induced RGC Damage in Rat—possible Involvement of Kynurenic Acid." Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 248.12 (2010): 1729-735. Web.


Acheson, Kevin J., Gérard Gérard Gremaud, Isabelle Meirim, Franck Montigon, Yves Krebs, Laurent B. Fay, Louis-Jean Gay, Phillippe Schenieter, Charles Schindler, and Luc Tappy. "Metabolic Effects of Caffeine in Humans: Lipid Oxidation or Futile Cycling?" American Society for Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1 (2004): 40-46.

Acheson, K. H., J. B. Anantharaman, P. Pittet, K. Anantharaman, and E. Jéquier. "Caffeine and Coffee: Their Influence on Metabolic Rate and Substrate Utilization in Normal Weight and Obese Individuals." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, no. 5, 989-97.

Butt, Masood Sadiq, and M. Tauseef Sultan. "Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 51, no. 4 (2011): 363-73. doi:10.1080/10408390903586412.

Acheson, K. H., J. B. Anantharaman, P. Pittet, K. Anantharaman, and E. Jéquier. "Caffeine and Coffee: Their Influence on Metabolic Rate and Substrate Utilization in Normal Weight and Obese Individuals." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, no. 5, 989-97.

Bracco, D., J. M. Ferrarra, M. J. Arnaud, E. Jequier, and Y. Schutz. "Effects of caffeine on energy metabolism, heart rate, and methylxanthine metabolism in lean and obese women." American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism 269, no. 4 (October 1, 1995): E671-678.

Butt, Masood Sadiq, and M. Tauseef Sultan. "Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 51, no. 4 (2011): 363-73. doi:10.1080/10408390903586412.

Costill, D. L., G. P. Dalsky, and W. J. Fink. "Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance." Medicine and Science in Sports 10, no. 3 (January 1978): 155-58.

Dulloo, A. G., C. A. Geissler, T. Horton, A. Collins, and D. S. Miller. "Normal Caffeine Consumption: Influence on Thermogenesis and Daily Energy Expenditure in Lean and Postobese Human Volunteers." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, no. 1 (1989): 44-50.

Yeh, T.-C., C.-P. Liu, W.-H. Cheng, B.-R. Chen, P.-J. Lu, P.-W. Cheng, W.-Y. Ho, G.-C. Sun, J.-C. Liou, and C.-J. Tseng. "Caffeine Intake Improves Fructose-Induced Hypertension and Insulin Resistance by Enhancing Central Insulin Signaling." Hypertension 63, no. 3 (2013): 535-41. doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.113.02272.

Evans, Suzette M., and Roland R. Griffiths. "Caffeine tolerance and choice in humans." Psychopharmacology 108, no. 1-2 (1992): 51-59. doi:10.1007/bf02245285.

Irwin, Christopher, Ben Desbrow, Aleisha Ellis, Brooke Okeeffe, Gary Grant, and Michael Leveritt. "Caffeine withdrawal and high-intensity endurance cycling performance." Journal of Sports Sciences 29, no. 5 (2011): 509-15. doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.541480.

Johnson, J.B., S. John, and D.R. Laub. "Pretreatment with alternate day modified fast will permit higher dose and frequency of cancer chemotherapy and better cure rates." Medical Hypotheses 72, no. 4 (2009): 381–82. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.07.064.

Yeh, T.-C., C.-P. Liu, W.-H. Cheng, B.-R. Chen, P.-J. Lu, P.-W. Cheng, W.-Y. Ho, G.-C. Sun, J.-C. Liou, and C.-J. Tseng. "Caffeine Intake Improves Fructose-Induced Hypertension and Insulin Resistance by Enhancing Central Insulin Signaling." Hypertension 63, no. 3 (2013): 535-41. doi:10.1161/hypertensionaha.113.02272.


Biolo, Gianni, Beniamino Ciocchi, Manuela Stulle, Alessandra Bosutti,, Rocco Barazzoni,, Michela Zanetti, Raffaella Antonione, Marion Lebenstedt, Petra Platen, Martina Heer, and Gianfranco Guarnieri. "Calorie restriction accelerates the catabolism of lean body mass during 2 wk of bed rest." American Society for Clinical Nutrition 86, no. 2 (August 2007): 366-72. Accessed August 17, 2017. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/86/2/366.long.

Harvie, Michelle et al. "The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women." British Journal of Nutrition 110, no. 08 (2013): 1534–547. doi:10.1017/s0007114513000792.

Heilbronn, Leonie K. et al "Effect of 6-Month Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of Longevity, Metabolic Adaptation, and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Individuals." JAMA 295, no. 13 (2006): 1539.

Lee, Changhan, and Valter Longo. "Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging." F1000Research, 2016. doi:10.12688/f1000research.7136.1.

Martin, Bronwen, Michele Pearson, Lisa Kebejian, Erin Golden, Alex Keselman, Meredith Bender, Olga Carlson, Josephine Egan, Bruce Ladenheim, Jean-Lud Cadet, Kevin G. Becker, William Wood, Kara Duffy, Prabhu Vinayakumar, Stuart Maudsley, and Mark P. Mattson. "Sex-Dependent Metabolic, Neuroendocrine, and Cognitive Responses to Dietary Energy Restriction and Excess." Endocrinology 148, no. 9 (2007): 4318–-333. doi:10.1210/en.2007-0161.

Park, Seungae, Na-Young Park, Giuseppe Valacchi, and Yunsook Lim. "Calorie Restriction with a High-Fat Diet Effectively Attenuated Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress-Related Markers in Obese Tissues of the High Diet Fed Rats." Mediators of Inflammation 2012 (2012): 1-11. doi:10.1155/2012/984643.

Skaznik-Wikiel, Malgorzata E., and Alex J. Polotsky. "The health pros and cons of continuous versus intermittent calorie restriction: More questions than answers." Maturitas 79, no. 3 (2014): 275-78. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.08.007.

Vega, V. L., R. De Cabo, and A. De Maio. "Age and Caloric Restriction Diets Are Confounding Factors that Modify the Response to Lipopolysaccharide by Peritoneal Macrophages in C57Bl/6 Mice." Shock 22, no. 3 (September 2004): 248–53.


Anand, Preetha, Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakara, Chitra Sundaram, Kuzhuvelil B. Harikumar, Sheeja T. Tharakan, Oiki S. Lai, Bokyung Sung, and Bharat B. Aggarwal. "Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes." Pharmaceutical Research 25, no. 9 (2008): 2097-116. doi:10.1007/s11095-008-9661-9.

Anand, Preetha, et al. “Cancer Is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes.” Pharmaceutical Research 25, no. 9 (2008): 2097–116, https://doi:10.1007/s11095-008-9661-9.

Johnson, I. T., G. Williamson, and S. R. Musk. "Anticarcinogenic factors in plant foods: a new class of nutrients?" Nutr Res Rev 7, no. 1 (January 1994): 175-204. Accessed August 17, 2017. doi:10.1079/NRR19940011

Preetha Anand, et al., “Cancer is a Preventable Disease that Requires Major Lifestyle Changes,” Pharmaceutical Research 25, no. 9 (2008): 2097–116, https://doi:10.1007/s11095-008-9661-9.

Raffaghello, L. et al. "Starvation-dependent differential stress resistance protects normal but not cancer cells against high-dose chemotherapy." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 24 (2008): 8215–220. doi:10.1073/pnas.0708100105.

Seyfried, Thomas N. and Purna Mukherjee. "Targeting Energy Metabolism in Brain Cancer: Review and Hypothesi." Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 1 (2005): 30. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-30.


Adelmant, Guillaume, Guoxun Chen, Jerry Donovan, C. Ronald Kahn, Daryl K. Granner, Christopher B. Newgard, Pere Puigserver, James Rhee, Bruce M. Spiegelman, John Stafford, J. Cliff Yoon, and Zhidan Wu. “Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through the Transcriptional Coactivator PGC-1,” Nature 413, no. 6852 (2001): 131–38, https://doi.10.1038/35093050.

"Carbohydrates." HSPH.Harvard.edu. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/fats-and-cholesterol/.

Devecis, J., P. Greene, A. Skaf, W. Willett. “Pilot 12-Week Feeding Weight-Loss Comparison: Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate (Ketogenic) Diets.” Obesity Research 11 (September 2003).

"Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, no. 2 (August 1988): 240-47.

Izumida, Yoshihiko, Naoya Yahagi, Yoshinori Takeuchi, Makiko Nishi, Akito Shikama, Ayako Takarada, Yukari Masuda, Midori Kubota, Takashi Matsuzaka, Yoshimi Nakagawa, Yoko Iizuka, Keiji Itaka, Kazunori Kataoka, Seiji Shioda, Akira Niijima, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Ryozo Nagai, Nobuhiro Yamada, Takashi Kadowaki, and Hitoshi Shimano. "Corrigendum: Glycogen shortage during fasting triggers liver–brain–adipose neurocircuitry to facilitate fat utilization." Nature Communications 4 (2013). doi:10.1038/ncomms3930.

Klement, Rainer J., and Ulrike Kämmerer. "Is there a role for carbohydrate restriction in the treatment and prevention of cancer?" Nutrition & Metabolism8, no. 1 (2011): 75. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-75

Manninen, Anssi H. "Metabolic Effects of the Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Misunderstood "Villains" of Human Metabolism." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 1, no. 2 (2004): 7. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-1-2-7.

Seyfried, Thomas N., and Purna Mukherjee. "Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer: review and hypothesis." Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 1 (2005): 30. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-30.

Westman, Eric C. "Is Dietary Carbohydrate Essential for Human Nutrition? ." American Society for Clinical Nutrition 75, no. 5 (2002): 951-53.

Westman, Eric C., Richard D. Feinman, John C. Mavropoulos, Mary C. Vernon, Jeff S. Volek, James A. Wortman, William S. Yancy, and Stephen D. Phinney. "Low-carbohydrate Nutrition and Metabolism ." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86, no. 2 (2007): 276-84.


B. Alberts, et al. “Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis).” Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition (2002). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26873.

Bailey, Regina. "Cell Membranes Function, Structure and Composition." ThoughtCo. August 4, 2017. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.thoughtco.com/cell-membrane-373364.

Spector, Arthur A., and Mark A. Yorek. "Membrane lipid composition and cellular function." Journal of Lipid Research 26 (1985): 1015–035.


Abeyrathne, E. D. N. S., H. Y. Lee, and D. U. Ahn. "Egg white proteins and their potential use in food processing or as nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agents—A review." Poultry Science 92, no. 12 (2013): 3292–299. doi:10.3382/ps.2013-03391.

Dawber, T. R., R. J. Nickerson, F. N. Brand, and J. Pool. "Eggs, serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, no. 4 (October 1982): 617-25.

Harvard School of Public Health. "Fats and Cholesterol." HSPH.Harvard.edu. July 25, 2016. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/fats-and-cholesterol/.

Ishizuki, Y. “The Effects on the Thyroid Gland of Soybeans Administered Experimentally in Healthy Subjects.” Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi, vol. 767, 1991, pp. 622–29.

Natoli, Sharon, Tania Markovic, David Lim, Manny Noakes, and Karam Kostner. "Unscrambling the research: Eggs, serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease." Nutrition & Dietetics 64, no. 2 (2007): 105–11. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00093.x.

Patisaul, Heather B., and Wendy Jefferson. "The pros and cons of phytoestrogens." Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology31, no. 4 (2010): 400-19. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.03.003.

Potter, Johnd., Davidl. Topping, and David Oakenfull. "Soya, Saponins, And Plasma-Cholesterol." The Lancet313, no. 8109 (1979): 223. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(79)90634-2.

Roos, N. M. De, M. L. Bots, and M. B. Katan. "Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids by Trans Fatty Acids Lowers Serum HDL Cholesterol and Impairs Endothelial Function in Healthy Men and Women." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 21, no. 7 (2001): 1233-237. doi:10.1161/hq0701.092161.

Sharma, Hari, Xiaoying Zhang, and Chandradhar Dwivedi. "The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation." AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda) 31, no. 2 (2010): 134. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.72361.

Shahin, Alam M., Michelle K. Mcguire, Nicole Anderson, Janet Williams, and Mark A. Mcguire. "Effects of margarine and butter consumption on distribution of trans-18∶1 fatty acid isomers and conjugated linoleic acid in major serum lipid classes in lactating women." Lipids 41, no. 2 (2006): 141–47. doi:10.1007/s11745-006-5082-x.

Siri, Patty W., and Ronald M. Krauss. "Influence of dietary carbohydrate and fat on LDL and HDL particle distributions." Current Atherosclerosis Reports 7, no. 6 (2005): 455–59. doi:10.1007/s11883-005-0062-9.

Miranda, Jose, Xaquin Anton, Celia Redondo-Valbuena, Paula Roca-Saavedra, Jose Rodriguez, Alexandre Lamas, Carlos Franco, and Alberto Cepeda. "Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods." Nutrients 7, no. 1 (2015): 706-29. doi:10.3390/nu7010706

Wood, Randall, Karen Kubena, Barbara O'Brien, Stephen Tseng, and Gail Martin. "Effect of butter, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched butter, trans fatty acid margarine, and zero trans fatty acid margarine on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men." Journal of Lipid Research 34 (1993): 1–11.


Bitman, Joel. "Status Report on the Alteration of Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition in Lipids in Meat, Milk, and Eggs." Fat Content and Composition of Animal Products: Proceedings of a Symposium Washington, D.C. , December 12–13, 1974.

Brown, Amy. Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation. Australia: Cengage Learning, 2015.

Inocent, Gouado, Demasse Mawamba Adelaide, Etame Loe Gisele, Meyimgo Ouambo Ruphine So, Ejoh Aba Richard, and Fokou Elie. "Impact of Three Cooking Methods (Steaming, Roasting on Charcoal and Frying) on the ß-Carotene and Vitamin C Contents of Plantain and Sweet Potato." American Journal of Food Technology 6, no. 11 (2011): 994-1001. doi:10.3923/ajft.2011.994.1001

Jiménez-Monreal, A. M., L. García-Diz, M. Martínez-Tomé, M. Mariscal, and M. A. Murcia. "Influence of Cooking Methods on Antioxidant Activity of Vegetables." Journal of Food Science 74, no. 3 (2009). doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01091.

Jinap, S., M.s. Mohd-Mokhtar, A. Farhadian, N.d.s. Hasnol, S.n. Jaafar, and P. Hajeb. "Effects of varying degrees of doneness on the formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in chicken and beef satay." Meat Science 94, no. 2 (2013): 202–07. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.01.013

Knize, Mark G., and James S. Felton. "Formation and Human Risk of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines Formed from Natural Precursors in Meat." Nutrition Reviews 63, no. 5 (2005): 158-65. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2005.tb00133.x

Li, Ling, Peng Wang, Xinglian Xu, and Guanghong Zhou. "Influence of Various Cooking Methods on the Concentrations of Volatile N-Nitrosamines and Biogenic Amines in Dry-Cured Sausages." Journal of Food Science 77, no. 5 (2012). doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02667.x

Miglio, Cristiana, Emma Chiavaro, Attilio Visconti, Vincenzo Fogliano, and Nicoletta Pellegrini. "Effects of Different Cooking Methods on Nutritional and Physicochemical Characteristics of Selected Vegetables." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, no. 1 (2008): 139-47. doi:10.1021/jf072304b

NIH. "Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk." Cancer.Gov. October 19, 2015. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/cooked-meats-fact-sheet.

Uribarri, Jaime, Sandra Woodruff, Susan Goodman, Weijing Cai, Xue Chen, Renata Pyzik, Angie Yong, Gary E. Striker, and Helen Vlassara. "Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet." Journal of the American Dietetic Association110, no. 6 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.018.

Uribarri, Jaime, Sandra Woodruff, Susan Goodman, Weijing Cai, Xue Chen, Renata Pyzik, Angie Yong, Gary E. Striker, and Helen Vlassara. "Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet." Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110, no. 6 (2010). doi:10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.018.

Wu, Chi-Hao, Shang-Ming Huang, Jer-An Lin, and Gow-Chin Yen. "Inhibition of advanced glycation endproduct formation by foodstuffs." Food & Function 2, no. 5 (2011): 224. doi:10.1039/c1fo10026b.

Yamaguchi, Tomoko, et al. "Radical-Scavenging Activity of Vegetables and the Effect of Cooking on Their Activity." Food Science and Technology Research 7, no. 3 (2001): 250–57. doi:10.3136/fstr.7.250.

Yuan, Gao-Feng, Bo Sun, Jing Yuan, and Qiao-Mei Wang. "Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli." Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 10, no. 8 (2009): 580-88. doi:10.1631/jzus.b0920051


Businco, L. A., A. Cantani, M. A. Longhi, and P. G. Giampietro. "Anaphylactic Reactions to a Cow's Milk Whey Protein Hydrolysate (Alfa-Re, Nestle) in Infants with Cow's Milk Allergy." Annals of Allergy 62, no. 4 (1989): 333-35.

Crinnion, Walter J., ND. "Organic Foods Contain Higher Levels of Certain Nutrients, Lower Levels of Pesticides, and May Provide Health Benefits for the Consumer." Alternative Medicine Review 15, no. 1, 4–12.

Jarmołowska, Beata, Katarzyna Sidor, Małgorzata Iwan, Krzysztof Bielikowicz, Maciej Kaczmarski, Elżbieta Kostyra, and Henryk Kostyra. "Changes of β-casomorphin content in human milk during lactation." Peptides 28, no. 10 (2007): 1982-986. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.08.002.

Miller, M. J. S., X.-J. Zhang, X. Gu, E. Tenore, and D. A. Clark. "Exaggerated Intestinal Histamine Release by Casein and Casein Hydrolysate but Not Whey Hydrolysate." Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 26.4 (1991): 379–8


B. Melnik, “Diet in Acne: Further Evidence for the Role of Nutrient Signalling in Acne Pathogenesis—A Commentary,” Acta Dermato Venereologica 92, no. 3 (2012): 228–31, https://doi:10.2340/00015555-1358.

Caubet, Jean-Christoph, and Julie Wang. "Current Understanding of Egg Allergy." Pediatric Clinics of North America 58, no. 2 (2011): 427-43. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2011.02.014.

Cheng, Chia-Wei, Gregor B. Adams, Laura Perin, Min Wei, Xiaoying Zhou, Ben S. Lam, Stefano Da Sacco, Mario Mirisola, David I. Quinn, Tanya B. Dorff, John J. Kopchick, and Valter D. Longo. "Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression." Cell Stem Cell 14, no. 6 (2014): 810-23. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014.

Dario Giugliano, Antonio Ceriello, and Katherine Esposito, "The Effects of Diet on Inflammation," Journal of the American College of Cardiology 48, no. 4 (2006): 677–85, https://doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.03.052.

Fiocchi, Alessandro, Lamia Dahdah, Carla Riccardi, Oscar Mazzina, and Vincenzo Fierro. "Precautionary labelling of cross-reactive foods: The case of rapeseed." Asthma Research and Practice 2, no. 1 (2016). doi:10.1186/s40733-016-0028-4.

Giugliano, Dario, Antonio Ceriello, and Katherine Esposito. "The Effects of Diet on Inflammation." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 48, no. 4 (2006): 677-85. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.03.052.

Ross, A. Catharine. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.

Simopoulos, A. P. Evolutionary Aspects of Nutrition and Health, Diet, Exercise, Genetics, and Chronic Disease. Basel, Switzerland: Karger, 1999.

Melnik, B. "Diet in Acne: Further Evidence for the Role of Nutrient Signalling in Acne Pathogenesis – A Commentary." Acta Dermato Venereologica 92, no. 3 (2012): 228-31. doi:10.2340/00015555-1358

Merete Pedersen, et al., “Environmental Risk Factors Differ Between Rheumatoid Arthritis with and without Auto-Antibodies Against Cyclic Citrullinated Peptides,” Arthritis Research & Therapy 8, no. 4 (2006), https://doi:10.1186/ar2022.

Pedersen, Merete, Soren Jacobsen, Mette Klarlund, Bo V. Pedersen, Allan Wiik, Jan Wohlfahrt, and Morten Frisch. "Environmental risk factors differ between rheumatoid arthritis with and without auto-antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides." Arthritis Research & Therapy 8, no. 4 (2006). Accessed August 23, 2017. doi:10.1186/ar2022.

War, Abdul Rashid, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Tariq Ahmad, Abdul Ahad Buhroo, Barkat Hussain, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, and Hari Chand Sharma. "Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores." Plant Signaling & Behavior 7, no. 10 (2012): 1306-320. doi:10.4161/psb.21663


Bazar, K. A., A. J. Yun, and P. Y. Lee. ""Starve a fever and feed a cold": feeding and anorexia may be adaptive behavioral modulators of autonomic and T helper balance." Med Hypotheses 64, no. 6 (2005): 1080-4. Accessed August 16, 2017.

Bowers, T. K., and E. Eckert. "Leukopenia in anorexia nervosa. Lack of increased risk of infection." Archives of internal medicine. October 1978. Accessed August 16, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/708174.

Exton, Michael S. "Infection-Induced Anorexia: Active Host Defence Strategy." Appetite 29, no. 3 (1997): 369-83. doi:10.1006/appe.1997.0116.

Kanra, G. Y., H. Özen, and A. Kara. "Infection and anorexia." Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 48 (2006): 279–87. Ibid.

LeGrand, E. K. "Why Infection-induced Anorexia? The Case for Enhanced Apoptosis of Infected Cells." Med Hypotheses 54, no. 4 (April 2000): 597–602. Accessed August 15, 2017.

Murray, M. J., and A. B. Murray. "Anorexia of infection as a mechanism of host defense." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32, no. 3 (March 1979): 593–96.


Antonio, Jose, Anya Ellerbroek, Brandon Fromhoff, Corey A. Peacock, and Tobin Silver. “The Effects of Consuming a High Protein Diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on Body Composition in Resistance-Trained Individuals.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (May 12, 2014): https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-19.

Arkinstall, M. J., C. R. Bruce, V. Nikolopoulos, A. P. Garnham, and J. A. Hawley. "The Effect Of Carbohydrate Ingestion On Metabolism During Running And Cycling." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 33, no. 5 (2001). doi:10.1097/00005768-200105001-00016

Bergman, B. C., G. E. Butterfield, E. E. Wolfel, G. A. Casazza, and G. A. Brooks. "An Evaluation Of Exercise And Training On Muscle Lipid Metabolism." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 30, no. Supplement (1998): 307. doi:10.1097/00005768-199805001-01745

Bennard, Patrick, and Éric Doucet. "Acute effects of exercise timing and breakfast meal glycemic index on exercise-induced fat oxidation." Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 31, no. 5 (2006): 502-11. doi:10.1139/h06-027.

Bhutani, Surabhi, et al. "Effect of exercising while fasting on eating behaviors and food intake." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 10, no. 1 (2013): 50. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-50.

Bock, K. De, E. A. Richter, A. P. Russell, B. O. Eijnde, W. Derave, M. Ramaekers, E. Koninckx, B. Léger, J. Verhaeghe, and P. Hespel. "Exercise in the fasted state facilitates fibre type-specific intramyocellular lipid breakdown and stimulates glycogen resynthesis in humans." The Journal of Physiology 564, no. 2 (2005): 649-60. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2005.083170.

Bock, K. De, W. Derave, B. O. Eijnde, M. K. Hesselink, E. Koninckx, A. J. Rose, P. Schrauwen, A. Bonen, E. A. Richter, and P. Hespel. "Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake." Journal of Applied Physiology 104, no. 4 (2008): 1045-055. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01195.2007

Buman, Matthew P., Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Albert J. Petitpas. "Hitting the wall in the marathon: Phenomenological characteristics and associations with expectancy, gender, and running history." Psychology of Sport and Exercise 9, no. 2 (2008): 177-90. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.03.003.

Church, Timothy S., Corby K. Martin, Angela M. Thompson, Conrad P. Earnest, Catherine R. Mikus, and Steven N. Blair. "Changes in Weight, Waist Circumference and Compensatory Responses with Different Doses of Exercise among Sedentary, Overweight Postmenopausal Women." PLoS ONE 4, no. 2 (2009). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004515

Coyle, Edward F. "Physical activity as a metabolic stressor." Am J Clin Nutr August 72, no. 2 (August 2000): 512s-20. Accessed August 17, 2017. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/72/2/512s.full.

Deldicque, Louise, Katrien De Bock, Michael Maris, Monique Ramaekers, Henri Nielens, Marc Francaux, and Peter Hespel. "Increased p70s6k phosphorylation during intake of a protein–carbohydrate drink following resistance exercise in the fasted state." European Journal of Applied Physiology 108, no. 4 (2009): 791-800. doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1289-x.

Desbrow, Ben, Caren Biddulph, Brooke Devlin, Gary D. Grant, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, and Michael D. Leveritt. "The effects of different doses of caffeine on endurance cycling time trial performance." Journal of Sports Sciences 30, no. 2 (2012): 115–20. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.632431.

Dohm, G. L., E. B. Tapscott, H. A. Barakat, and G. J. Kasperek. "Influence of fasting on glycogen depletion in rats during exercise." Journal of Applied Physiology 55, no. 3 (September 1983): 830–33.

Febbraio, M. A., A. Chiu, D. J. Angus, M. J. Arkinstall, and J. A. Hawlet. "Effects of carbohydrate ingestion before and during exercise on glucose kinetics and performance." Appl Physiol 89 (2000): 2200-226.

Harber, M. P., A. R. Konopka, B. Jemiolo, S. W. Trappe, T. A. Trappe, and P. T. Reidy. "Muscle protein synthesis and gene expression during recovery from aerobic exercise in the fasted and fed states." AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 299, no. 5 (2010). doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00348.2010

Helms, Eric R., Alan A. Aragon, and Peter J. Fitschen. "Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 11, no. 1 (2014): 20. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-11-20

Hindawi. "High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss." Journal of Obesity. November 24, 2010. Accessed August 18, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/868305.

Howatson, Glyn, Michael Hoad, Stuart Goodall, Jamie Tallent, Phillip G. Bell, and Duncan N. French. "Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 9, no. 1 (2012): 20. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-9-20

King, Neil A., Katherine Appleton, Peter J. Rogers, and John E. Blundell. "Effects of Sweetness and Energy in Drinks on Food Intake Following Exercise." Physiology & Behavior 66, no. 2 (1999): 375-79. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(98)00280-7.

Kirkendall, Donald T., John B. Leiper, Zakia Bartagi, Jiri Dvorak, and Yacine Zerguini. "The influence of Ramadan on physical performance measures in young Muslim footballers." Journal of Sports Sciences 26, no. Sup3 (2008). doi:10

Knapik, J J, et al. “Influence of Fasting on Carbohydrate and Fat Metabolism during Rest and Exercise in Men .” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 64, no. 5, 1998, pp. 1923–929.

Laurent, C. Matthew, Lauren S. Vervaecke, Matthew R. Kutz, and J. Matthew Green. "Sex-Specific Responses to Self-Paced, High-Intensity Interval Training With Variable Recovery Periods." Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 28, no. 4 (2014): 920-27. doi:10.1519/jsc.0b013e3182a1f574.

Milanović, Zoran, Goran Sporiš, and Matthew Weston. "Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) and Continuous Endurance Training for VO2max Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials." SpringerLink. August 05, 2015. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-015-0365-0.

Osterberg, Kristin L., and Christopher L. Melby. "Effect of Acute Resistance Exercise on Postexercise Oxygen Consumption and Resting Metabolic Rate in Young Women." International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 10, no. 1 (2000): 71-81. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.10.1.71

Rapoport, Benjamin I. "Metabolic Factors Limiting Performance in Marathon Runners." PLoS Computational Biology 6, no. 10 (2010). doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000960.

Proeyen, K. Van, K. Szlufcik, H. Nielens, M. Ramaekers, and P. Hespel. "Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state." Journal of Applied Physiology110, no. 1 (2010): 236-45. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00907.2010.

Proeyen, Karen Van, Karolina Szlufcik, Henri Nielens, Koen Pelgrim, Louise Deldicque, Matthijs Hesselink, Paul P. Van Veldhoven, and Peter Hespel. "Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.” 588, no. 21 (2010): 4289-302. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.196493.

Proeyen, Karen Van, et al. "Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet." The Journal of Physiology 588, no. 21 (2010): 4289–302. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.196493.

Shephard, R.j. "Training in the fasted state facilitates re-activation of eEF2 activity during recovery from endurance exercise." Yearbook of Sports Medicine 2012 (2012): 87-88. doi:10.1016/j.yspm.2011.07.01

Williams, Nancy I., Dana L. Helmreich, David B. Parfitt, Anne Caston-Balderrama, and Judy L. Cameron. "Evidence for a Causal Role of Low Energy Availability in the Induction of Menstrual Cycle Disturbances During Strenuous Exercise Training." Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey 57, no. 7 (2002): 440-42. doi:10.1097/00006254-200207000-00017.

Williams, Nancy I., John C. Young, Janet W. Mcarthur, Beverly Bullen, Gary S. Skrinar, and Barry Turnbull. "Strenuous exercise with caloric restriction." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise27, no. 10 (1995). doi:10.1249/00005768-199510000-00007.


Blaak, Ellen. "Gender differences in fat metabolism." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 4, no. 6 (2001): 499-502. doi:10.1097/00075197-200111000-00006.

Jensen, M. D., P. E. Cryer, C. M. Johnson, and M. J. Murray. "Effects of epinephrine on regional free fatty acid and energy metabolism in men and women." Am J Physiol. 270, no. 2 Pt 1 (February 1996): E259-64.

Jensen, M. D., M. W. Haymond, J. E. Gerich, P. E. Cryer, and J. M. Miles. "Lipolysis during fasting. Decreased suppression by insulin and increased stimulation by epinephrine." Journal of Clinical Investigation 79, no. 1 (1987): 207-13. doi:10.1172/jci112785.

Kahn, Ronald, MD, Yu-Hua Tseng, Ph. D., and Aaron Cypress, Ph. D. "Turning Up the Heat on Brown Fat." Joslin Diabetes Center. Accessed August 18, 2017. http://www.joslin.org/about/turning-up-the-heat-on-brown-fat.html.

Mauriege, P., J. Galitzky, M. Berlan, and M. Lafontan. "Heterogeneous distribution of beta and alpha-2 adrenoceptor binding sites in human fat cells from various fat deposits: functional consequences." Eur J Clin Invest 17, no. 2 (April 1987): 156-65.

Richelsen, B. “Increased Alpha 2—but Similar Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Activities in Subcutaneous Gluteal Adipocytes from Females Compared with Males.” Eur J Clin Invest, vol. 16, no. 4 (1996): pp. 302–09.

Zauner, C. et al. "Resting energy expenditure in short-term starvation is increased as a result of an increase in serum norepinephrine." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 6 (2000): 1511–5. Accessed June 2000.


Boateng, Laurene, Richard Ansong, William B. Owusu, and Matilda Steiner-Asiedu. "Coconut oil and palm oil's role in nutrition, health and national development: A review." Ghana Med J. 50, no. 3 (September 2016): 189-96. Accessed August 16, 2017.

Enig, Mary, and Beverly Teter. "Role of Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Weight Management." Obesity, 2012, 637-50. doi:10.1201/b12261-51.

Han, Jian Rong, Bin Deng, Jing Sun, Chao Gang Chen, Barbara E. Corkey, James L. Kirkland, Jing Ma, and Wen Guo. "Effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjects." Metabolism 56, no. 7 (2007): 985-91. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.03.005.

Law, Kim, Nizuwan Azman, Eshaifol Omar, Muhammad Musa, Narazah Yusoff, Siti Sulaiman, and Nik Hazlina Hussain. "The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients." Lipids in Health and Disease 13, no. 1 (2014): 139. doi:10.1186/1476-511x-13-139.

Marina, A. M., Y. B. Che Man, S. A. H. Nazimah, and I. Amin. "Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 60, no. Sup2 (2009): 114-23. doi:10.1080/09637480802549127.

Mccarty, Mark F., and James J. Dinicolantonio. "Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity." Open Heart 3, no. 2 (2016). doi:10.1136/openhrt-2016-000467.

Ronis, Martin J.J., January N. Baumgardner, Neha Sharma, Jamie Vantrease, Matthew Ferguson, Yudong Tong, Xianli Wu, Mario A. Cleves, and Thomas M. Badger. "Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease." Experimental Biology and Medicine 238, no. 2 (2013): 151-62. doi:10.1258/ebm.2012.012303.


Albert, Benjamin B., David Cameron-Smith, Paul L. Hofman, and Wayne S. Cutfield. "Oxidation of Marine Omega-3 Supplements and Human Health." BioMed Research International 2013 (2013): 1-8. doi:10.1155/2013/464921.

Anderson, Breanne M., and David Wl Ma. "Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?" Lipids in Health and Disease 8, no. 1 (2009): 33. doi:10.1186/1476-511x-8-33.

Burr, M I, et al. “Effects Of Changes In Fat, Fish, And Fibre Intakes On Death And Myocardial Reinfarction: Diet And Reinfarction Trial (Dart).” The Lancet, vol. 334, no. 8666, 1989, pp. 757–61.

Chang, C. Y., K. E. DS, and J. Y. Chen. "Essential fatty acids and human brain." Acta Neurol Taiwan 18, no. 4 (December 2009): 231–41.

Connor, W. E. "Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (January 2007): 171S-5S.

"Essential Fatty Acids." Linus Pauling Institute. May 2014. Accessed August 21, 2017. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids.

Cunnane, Stephen C. "Origins and evolution of the Western diet: implications of iodine and seafood intakes for the human brain." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82, no. 2 (August 2005): 483.

Halvorsen, Bente Lise, and Rune Blomhoff. "Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements." Food & Nutrition Research 55, no. 1 (2011): 5792. doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5792.

Hibbeln, J. R., and N. Salem, JR. "Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, no. 1 (July 1995): 1–9.

Higdon, Jane. "Essential Fatty Acids." Linus Pauling Institute. May 05, 2003. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids.

Jenkinson, A, et al. “Dietary Intakes of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Indices of Oxidative Stress in Human Volunteers .” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 53, no. 7, 1999, pp. 523–28.

Laugharne, J. D., J. E. Mellor, and M. Peet. "Fatty acids and schizophrenia." Lipids, March 1996, S163–5

Peat, Ray, Ph.D. "Fats and Degeneration." RayPeat.com. 2009. Accessed August 16, 2017. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/fats-degeneration3.shtml.

Peat, Ray, Ph. D. "The Great Fish Oil Experiment." RayPeat.com. 2007. Accessed August 16, 2017. http://raypeat.com/articles/articles/fishoil.shtml.

Rosell, M. S., Z. Lloyd-Wright, P. N. Appelby, T. A. Sanders, N. E. Allen, and T. J. Key. "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: 327–34. Accessed August 2005.

Simopoulos, Artemis. "An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity." Nutrients 8, no. 3 (2016): 128. doi:10.3390/nu8030128.

Simopoulos, A. P. "Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, no. 3 (September 1991): 438-63.

Stoll, A. L., C.a. Locke, L.b. Marangell, and W. E. Severus. "Omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder: a review." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 60, no. 5–6 (1999): 329-37. doi:10.1016/s0952-3278(99)80008-8.

Stoll, Andrew L. The omega-3 connection: the groundbreaking omega-3 antidepression diet and brain program. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Turner, Rufus, Carlene H. Mclean, and Karen M. Silvers. "Are the health benefits of fish oils limited by products of oxidation?" Nutrition Research Reviews 19, no. 01 (2006): 53. doi:10.1079/nrr2006117.

Yehuda, Shlomo, Sharon Rabinovtz, Raphael L. Carasso, and David I. Mostofsky. "Essential Fatty Acids Preparation (Sr-3) Improves Alzheimers Patients Quality of Life." International Journal of Neuroscience 87, no. 3-4 (1996): 141–49. doi:10.3109/00207459609070833

Månsson, Helena Lindmark. "Fatty acids in bovine milk fat." Food & Nutrition Research 52, no. 1 (2008): 1821. doi:10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1821.

Miller, M J.S, et al. “Exaggerated Intestinal Histamine Release by Casein and Casein Hydrolysate but Not Whey Hydrolysate .” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology , vol. 26, no. 4, 1991, pp. 379–84.

Pal, Sebely, Keith Woodford, Sonja Kukuljan, and Suleen Ho. "Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose." Nutrients 7, no. 9 (2015): 7285-297. doi:10.3390/nu7095339.

Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, E., B. Jarmołowska, S. Krawczuk, E. Kostyra, H. Kostyra, and M. Iwan. "Contents of agonistic and antagonistic opioid peptides in different cheese varieties." International Dairy Journal19, no. 4 (2009): 258-63. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.10.011.

Sserunjogi, Mohammed L., Roger K. Abrahamsen, and Judith Narvhus. "A Review Paper: Current Knowledge of Ghee and Related Products." International Dairy Journal 8, no. 8 (1998): 677-88. doi:10.1016/s0958-6946(98)00106-x.


Baer, David J., Joseph T. Judd, Beverly A. Clevidence, and Russel P. Tracy. "Dietary Fatty Acids Affect Plasma Markers of Inflammation in Healthy Men Fed Controlled Diets: A Randomized Crossover Study." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 6 (2004): 969-73.

Chiu, Sally, Paul T. Williams, and Ronald M. Krauss. "Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial." Plos One 12, no. 2 (2017). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170664.

Siri-Tarino, P. W., Q. Sun, F. B. Hu, and R. M. Krauss. "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 3 (2010): 535-46. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725

Teicholz, Nina. "The Questionable Link Between Saturated Fat and Heart Disease." The Wall Street Journal. May 06, 2014. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-questionable-link-between-saturated-fat-and-heart-disease-1399070926.


Baer, David J., Joseph T. Judd, Beverly A. Clevidence, and Russel P. Tracy. "Dietary Fatty Acids Affect Plasma Markers of Inflammation in Healthy Men Fed Controlled Diets: A Randomized Crossover Study." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 6 (2004): 969-73.

Chiu, Sally, Paul T. Williams, and Ronald M. Krauss. "Effects of a very high saturated fat diet on LDL particles in adults with atherogenic dyslipidemia: A randomized controlled trial." Plos One 12, no. 2 (2017). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170664.

Siri-Tarino, P. W., Q. Sun, F. B. Hu, and R. M. Krauss. "Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 3 (2010): 535-46. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725

Teicholz, Nina. "The Questionable Link Between Saturated Fat and Heart Disease." The Wall Street Journal. May 06, 2014. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-questionable-link-between-saturated-fat-and-heart-disease-1399070926.


Aggett, Peter, J, Carlo Agostini, Irene Axelsson, Christine A. Edwards, Olivier Goulet, Olle Hernell, Berthold Koletzko, Harry N. Lafeber, Jean-Léopold Micheli, Kim F. Michaelsen, Jacques Rigo, Hania Zajewska, and Lawrence T. Weaver. "Nondigestible Carbohydrates in the Diets of Infants and Young Children: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 36, no. 3 (2003): 329-37.

Alberts, David S., María Elena Martínez, Denise J. Roe, José M. Guillén-Rodríguez, James R. Marshall, J. Barbara Van Leeuwen, Mary E. Reid, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Perla A. Vargas, A.b. Bhattacharyya, David L. Earnest, Dianne Parish, Kris Koonce, Lianne Fales, and Richard E. Sampliner. "Lack of Effect of a High-Fiber Cereal Supplement on the Recurrence of Colorectal Adenomas." New England Journal of Medicine 342, no. 16 (2000): 1156-162. doi:10.1056/nejm200004203421602

Batchelor, A. J., and Juliet E. Compston. "Reduced plasma half-life of radio-labelled 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in subjects receiving a high-fibre diet." British Journal of Nutrition 49, no. 02 (1983): 213. doi:10.1079/bjn19830027.

Baye, Kaleab, Claire Mouquet-Rivier, and Ean-Pierre Guyot. "The unresolved role of dietary fibers on mineral absorption." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57, no. 5 (May 2015). Accessed August 17, 2017. doi:10.1080/10408398.2014.953030.

Cummings, J. H., M. J. Hill, E. S. Bone, W. J. Branch, and D. J. Jenkins. "The effect of meat protein and dietary fiber on colonic function and metabolism. II. Bacterial metabolites in feces and urine." Am J Clin Nutr32, no. 10 (October 1979): 2094–101

Guyton, Arthur C., and John E. Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Philadelphia.: Elsevier Saunders, 2006.

"Lack of Effect of a High-Fiber Cereal Supplement on the Recurrence of Colorectal Adenomas." New England Journal of Medicine 343, no. 13 (2000): 980. doi:10.1056/nejm200009283431321.

Reinhold, John G., Pedro L. García, and Luis Arias-Amado Pedro Garzón. "Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease." Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease, 1982, 117-32.

Rock, Cheryl L. "Primary Dietary Prevention: Is the Fiber Story Over?" Cancer Prevention Recent Results in Cancer Research: 171–177. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-37696-5_14.

Tan, Kok-Yang. "Fiber and colorectal diseases: Separating fact from fiction." World Journal of Gastroenterology 13, no. 31 (2007): 4161. doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i31.4161.

Torre, M. A., R. Rodriguez, and F. Saura-Calixto. "Effects of Dietary Fiber and Phytic Acid on Mineral Availability." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 30, no. 1 (1991): 1-22. doi:10.1080/10408399109527545.


Anovski, Susan. "Sugar and Fat: Cravings and Aversions." The Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003): 835S-37S.

Araujo, Ivan E. De, Jozélia G. Ferreira, Luis A. Tellez, Xueying Ren, and Catherine W. Yeckel. "The gut–brain dopamine axis: A regulatory system for caloric intake." Physiology & Behavior 106, no. 3 (2012): 394–99. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.02.026.

Bartoshuk, Linda. "Learning to Like Foods." Association for Psychological Science. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/learning-to-like-foods#.WR5HNVKZOcY

Davis, Caroline. “From Passive Overeating to ‘Food Addiction’: A Spectrum of Compulsion and Severity.” ISRN Obesity (2013): 1–20, https://doi:10.1155/2013/435027.

Esteve, Montserrat, Immaculada Rafecas, Joséantonio Fernández-López, Xavier Remesar, and Marià Alemany. "Effect of a cafeteria diet on energy intake and balance in Wistar rats." Physiology & Behavior 56, no. 1 (1994): 65–71. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(94)90262-3.

Finlayson, G., E. Bryant, J.e. Blundell, and N.a. King. "Acute compensatory eating following exercise is associated with implicit hedonic wanting for food." Physiology & Behavior 97, no. 1 (2009): 62-67. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.02.002

Harvey, Kirsty, Eva Kemps, and Marika Tiggemann. "The nature of imagery processes underlying food cravings." British Journal of Health Psychology 10, no. 1 (2005): 49–56. doi:10.1348/135910704x14249.

Hassel, Jim. "The Flavorists: Tweaking tastes and creating cravings." Interview by Morley Safer. The Flavorists. Transcript. CBS News. November 27, 2011.

Johnson, Paul M., and Paul J. Kenny. "Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats." Nature Neuroscience 13, no. 5 (2010): 635-41. doi:10.1038/nn.2519

Lappalainen, R, et al. “Hunger/Craving Responses and Reactivity to Food Stimuli during Fasting and Dieting.” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 679–88.

Lowe, Michael R., and Allen S. Levine. "Eating Motives and the Controversy over Dieting: Eating Less Than Needed versus Less Than Wanted." Obesity Research 13, no. 5 (2005): 797-806. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.90

Macedo, Isabel Cristina de, Joice Soares de Freitas, and Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres."The Influence of Palatable Diets in Reward System Activation: A Mini Review." Hindawi: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. March 20, 2016. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7238679.

Massey, Anna, and Andrew J. Hill. "Dieting and food craving. A descriptive, quasi-prospective study." Appetite 58, no. 3 (2012): 781-85. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.020

Ong, Z. Y., and B. S. Muhlhausler. "Maternal ‘junk-food’ feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring." The FASEB Journal 25, no. 7 (2011): 2167–179. doi:10.1096/fj.10-178392.

Rada, P., N.m. Avena, and B.g. Hoebel. "Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell." Neuroscience 134, no. 3 (2005): 737-44. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.04.043.

Roitman, M. F. "Dopamine Operates as a Subsecond Modulator of Food Seeking." Journal of Neuroscience 24, no. 6 (2004): 1265-271. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3823-03.2004.

Schultz, Wolfram. "Predictive Reward Signal of Dopamine Neurons ." Journal of Neurophysiology 80, no. 1 (1998): 1-27.

Pelchat, M. L., A. Johnson, R. Chan, J. Valdez, and J. D. Ragland. "Images of desire: food-craving activation during fMRI." Neuroimage 23, no. 4 (December 2004): 1486-93.

Yamaguchi, Shizuko, and Kumiko Ninomiya. "Umami and Food Palatability." Flavor Chemistry, 1999, 423-31. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-4693-1_36.

FOODS (Chocolate, Vinegar, Spices, Honey)

Ajibola, Abdulwahid, Joseph P. Chamunorwa, and Kennedy H. Erlwanger. "Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth." Nutrition & Metabolism 9, no. 1 (2012): 61. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-9-61.

Allen, Robin R., LeAnn Carson, Catherine Kwik-Uribe, Ellen M. Evans, and John W. Erdman, Jr. "Daily Consumption of a Dark Chocolate Containing Flavanols and Added Sterol Esters Affects Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Normotensive Population with Elevated Cholesterol." The Journal of Nutrition 138, no. 4 (April 2008): 725-31.

Balboa-Castillo, Teresa, Esther López-García, Luz M. León-Muñoz, Raúl F. Pérez-Tasigchana, José Ramón Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, and Pilar Guallar-Castillón. "Chocolate and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Prospective Study." Plos One 10, no. 4 (2015). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123161.

Carter, Dee A., Shona E. Blair, Nural N. Cokcetin, Daniel Bouzo, Peter Brooks, Ralf Schothauer, and Elizabeth J. Harry. "Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative." Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016). doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00569.

Grassi, Davide, Christina Ippi, Stefano Necozione, Giovambattista Desideri, and Claudio Ferri. "Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, no. 3 (March 2005): 611–14.

Ho, Chin Wai, Azwan Mat Lazim, Shazrul Fazry, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain Zaki, and Seng Joe Lim. "Varieties, production, composition and health benefits of vinegars: A review." Food Chemistry 221 (2017): 1621-630. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.128.

Kaefer, Christine M., and John A. Milner. "The role of herbs and spices in cancer prevention." The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 19, no. 6 (2008): 347-61. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2007.11.003.

Kris-Etherton, Penny M., Kari D. Hecker, Andrea Bonanome, Stacie M. Coval, Amy E. Binkoski, Kirsten F. Hilpert, Amy E. Griel, and Terry D. Etherton. "Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer." The American Journal of Medicine 113, no. 9 (2002): 71-88. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(01)00995-0.

Molan, P. C. "The potential of honey to promote oral wellness." General Dentistry, Nov. & Dec. 2001, 584–9. Accessed August 8, 2017.

Molan, Peter C. "Why honey is effective as a medicine. 1. Its use in modern medicine." Bee World 80, no. 2 (1999): 80-92. doi:10.1080/0005772x.1999.11099430.

Osato, Michael S. "Osmotic effect of honey on growth and viability of Helicobacter pylori." Digestive Diseases and Sciences 44, no. 3 (1999): 462-64. doi:10.1023/a:1026676517213.

Scapagnini, Giovanni, Sergio Davinelli, Laura Di Renzo, Antonino De Lorenzo, Hector Olarte, Giuseppe Micali, Arrigo Cicero, and Salvador Gonzalez. "Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health." Nutrients 6, no. 8 (2014): 3202-213. doi:10.3390/nu6083202.

Sunni , Ahmed Al, and Rabia Latif. "Effects of chocolate intake on Perceived Stress; a Controlled Clinical Study." International Journal of Health Sciences 8, no. 4 (October 2014): 393–401.

Vinson, Joe A., and Matthew J. Motisi. "Polyphenol antioxidants in commercial chocolate bars: Is the label accurate?" Journal of Functional Foods 12 (2015): 526-29. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.022.


Anderson, K. E. "Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, and vitamin A and E composition in eggs from hens housed in conventional cage and range production facilities." Poultry Science 90, no. 7 (2011): 1600-608. doi:10.3382/ps.2010-01289.

Bonwick, Graham, and Catherine S. Birch. Antioxidants in Fresh and Frozen Fruit and Vegetables: Impact Study of Varying Storage Conditions. Report. University of Chester. Accessed August 18, 2017. http://bfff.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Leatherhead-Chester-Antioxidant-Reports-2013.pdf. Client: British Frozen Food Federation; Pelican PR

Couvreur, S., C. Hurtaud, C. Lopez, L. Delaby, and J.l. Peyraud. "The Linear Relationship Between the Proportion of Fresh Grass in the Cow Diet, Milk Fatty Acid Composition, and Butter Properties." Journal of Dairy Science 89, no. 6 (2006): 1956-969. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(06)72263-9.

Crinnion, W. J. "Organic Foods Contain Higher Levels of Certain Nutrients, Lower Levels of Pesticides, and May Provide Health Bene ts for the Consumer." Altern Med Rev. 15, no. 1 (April 2010): 4-12.

Daley, Cynthia A., Amber Abbott, Patrick S. Doyle, Glenn A. Nader, and Stephanie Larson. "A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef." Nutrition Journal 9, no. 1 (2010). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-10.

Davis, Donald R. "Declining Fruit and Vegetable Nutrient Composition: What Is the Evidence?" Hort Science 44, no. 1 (February 2009): 15-19. Accessed August 10, 2017.

Food And Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "CHAPTER 2: Effects of stress and injury on meat and by-product quality." FAO.org. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6909e/x6909e04.htm.

Frei, M. R., R. E. Berger, S. J. Dusch, V. Guel, J. R. Jauchem, J. H. Merritt, and M. A. Stedham. "Chronic exposure of cancer-prone mice to low-level 2450 MHz radiofrequency radiation." Bioelectromagnetics. 19, no. 1 (1998): 20-31

Frei, Melvin R., James R. Jauchem, Steven J. Dusch, James H. Merritt, Rick E. Berger, and Michael A. Stedham. "Chronic, Low-Level (1.0 W/kg) Exposure of Mice Prone to Mammary Cancer to 2450 MHz Microwaves." Radiation Research 150, no. 5 (1998): 568. doi:10.2307/3579874

Frimpong, Samuel, Girma Gebresenbet, Emmanuel Bobobee, Elias Aklaku, and Ibrahim Hamdu. "Effect of Transportation and Pre-Slaughter Handling on Welfare and Meat Quality of Cattle: Case Study of Kumasi Abattoir, Ghana." Veterinary Sciences 1, no. 3 (2014): 174-91. doi:10.3390/vetsci1030174.

Halvorsen, Bente Lise, and Rune Blomhoff. "Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements." Food & Nutrition Research 55, no. 1 (2011): 5792. doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5792.

Hebeisen, D. F., F. Hoeflin, H. P. Reusch, E. Junker, and B. H. Lauterburg. "Increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in milk and platelet rich plasma of grass-fed cows." Int J Vitam Nutr Res 63, no. 3 (1993): 229-33.

"How to Decipher Egg Carton Labels." HumaneSociety.org. Accessed August 18, 2017. http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/confinement_farm/facts/guide_egg_labels.htm

Couvreur, S., C. Hurtaud, C. Lopez, L. Delaby, and J.l. Peyraud. "The Linear Relationship Between the Proportion of Fresh Grass in the Cow Diet, Milk Fatty Acid Composition, and Butter Properties." Journal of Dairy Science 89, no. 6 (2006): 1956-969. doi:10.3168/jds.s0022-0302(06)72263-9.

Khan, Muhammad Ahmad, and Fereidoon Shahidi. "Rapid Oxidation of Commercial Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stored Under Fluorescent Light." Journal of Food Lipids 6, no. 4 (1999): 331-39. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4522.1999.tb00154.x.

Lairon, Denis. "Nutritional quality and safety of organic food. A review." Agronomy for Sustainable Development 30, no. 1 (2010): 33-41. doi:10.1051/agro/2009019

USDA. "Organic Production & Handling Standards." AMS.USDA.gov. November 16. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.ams.usda.gov/publications/content/organic-production-handling-standards. National Organic Program Office

Landers, Timothy F., Bevin Cohen, Thomas E. Wittum, and Elaine L. Larson. "A Review of Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: Perspective, Policy, and Potential." Public Health Reports 127, no. 1 (2012): 4-22. doi:10.1177/003335491212700103.

Mansbridge , R. J., and J. S. Blake. "Nutritional factors affecting the fatty acid composition of bovine milk." Br J Nutr 78, no. Suppl 1 (July 1997): S37-47.

Lopez-Bote, C.j, R. Sanz Arias, A.i Rey, A. Castaño, B. Isabel, and J. Thos. "Effect of free-range feeding on n−3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol content and oxidative stability of eggs." Animal Feed Science and Technology 72, no. 1-2 (1998): 33-40. doi:10.1016/s0377-8401(97)00180-6.

Mansbridge , R. J., and J. S. Blake. "Nutritional factors affecting the fatty acid composition of bovine milk." Br J Nutr 78, no. Suppl 1 (July 1997): S37-47.

Morris, Craig A. "USDA Graded Cage-Free Eggs: All They're Cracked Up To Be." USDA.gov. September 13, 2016. https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2016/09/13/usda-graded-cage-free-eggs-all-theyre-cracked-be.

National Organic Program Office GPO. "205.601 Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production." ECFR.gov. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?c=ecfr&SID=06b088e611c5f18a4d02ca9945a1c3dd&rgn=div8&view=text&node=7:

Nhung, Nguyen, Nguyen Cuong, Guy Thwaites, and Juan Carrique-Mas. "Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production in Southeast Asia: A Review." Antibiotics 5, no. 4 (2016): 37. doi:10.3390/antibiotics5040037

Petracci, M., S. Mudalal, F. Soglia, and C. Cavani. "Meat quality in fast-growing broiler chickens." Worlds Poultry Science Journal 71, no. 02 (2015): 363-74. doi:10.1017/s0043933915000367

Sun, Hao, Li-Xin Lu, Chang-Feng Ge, and Ya-Li Tang. "Effect of Packaging Films on the Quality of Canola Oil under Photooxidation Conditions." Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2015 (2015): 1-6. doi:10.1155/2015/764516.

Rana, Tanmoy, Asit Kumar Bera, Dipak Kumar Mondal, Subhashree Das, Debasis Bhattacharya, Srikanta Samanta, Diganta Pan, and Subrata Kumar Das. "Arsenic residue in the products and by-products of chicken and ducks." Toxicology and Industrial Health 30, no. 6 (2012): 576-80. doi:10.1177/0748233712462467.

Staszak, Ewa. "Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content of Milk from Cows Fed Different Diets." Folia Biologica 53, no. 4 (2005): 103-06. doi:10.3409/173491605775789290.

Terra, Stefania La, Vita Maria Marino, Mario Manenti, Giuseppe Licitra, and Stefania Carpino. "Increasing pasture intakes enhances polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipophilic antioxidants in plasma and milk of dairy cows fed total mix ration." Dairy Science & Technology 90, no. 6 (2010): 687-98. doi:10.1051/dst/2010100.

"Toxicological Function of Adipose Tissue: Focus on Persistent Organic Pollutants." Environmental Health Perspectives121, no. 2 (2012): 162-69. doi:10.1289/ehp.1205485.

Roy, Poritosh, Takahiro Orikasa, Hiroshi Okadome, Nobutaka Nakamura, and Takeo Shiina. "Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8, no. 12 (2011): 1957-976. doi:10.3390/ijerph8061957.

USDA. "Bison from Farm to Table." FSIS.USDA.gov. October 2011. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/d996bade-c1a4-490d-bed7-eddedf277403/Bison_from_Farm_to_Table.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

USDA. "Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms." FSIS.USDA.gov. August 10, 2015. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/food-labeling/meat-and-poultry-labeling-terms/meat-and-poultry-labeling-terms.

USDA. "Organic Livestock Requirements ." AMS.USDA.gov. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Organic%20Livestock%20Requirements.pdf.

USDA. "Organic Production & Handling Standards." AMS.USDA.gov. November 16. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.ams.usda.gov/publications/content/organic-production-handling-standards.

Yamaguchi, Takahiro, et al "Antibiotic Residue Monitoring Results for Pork, Chicken, and Beef Samples in Vietnam in 2012–2013." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63, no. 21 (2015): 5141–145. doi:10.1021/jf505254


Allen, Anthony K., G. Paul Bolwell, David S. Brown, Christopher Sidebottom, and Antoni R. Slabas. "Potato Lectin: A Three-domain Glycoprotein with Novel Hydroxyproline-containing Sequences and Sequence Similarities to Wheat-germ Agglutinin." The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology ) 28, no. 11 (1996): 1285-291.

Artemova, N.v., Z.m. Bumagina, A.s. Kasakov, V.v. Shubin, and B.ya. Gurvits. "Opioid peptides derived from food proteins suppress aggregation and promote reactivation of partly unfolded stressed proteins." Peptides 31, no. 2 (2010): 332-38. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2009.11.025.

Catassi, Carlo, Julio Bai, Bruno Bonaz, Gerd Bouma, Antonio Calabrò, Antonio Carroccio, Gemma Castillejo, Carolina Ciacci, Fernanda Cristofori, Jernej Dolinsek, Ruggiero Francavilla, Luca Elli, Peter Green, Wolfgang Holtmeier, Peter Koehler, Sibylle Koletzko, Christof Meinhold, David Sanders, Michael Schumann, Detlef Schuppan, Reiner Ullrich, Andreas Vécsei, Umberto Volta, Victor Zevallos, Anna Sapone, and Alessio Fasano. "Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders." Nutrients 5, no. 10 (2013): 3839-853. doi:10.3390/nu5103839.

Childers, Norman F., and Michael S. Margoles. "Relation of Nightshades (Solanaceae) to Arthritis." Hort Science 33, no. 3 (June 1998): 505.

Cordain, Loren. "Cereal grains: humanity's double-edged sword." World Rev Nutr Diet 84 (1999): 19-73.

Cordain, Loren, L. Toohey, M. J. Smith, and M. S. Hickey. "Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis." British Journal of Nutrition 83, no. 03 (2000): 207-17. doi:10.1017/s0007114500000271

"Diagnosis of Celiac Disease: Current State of the Evidence." Effective Healthcare Program, July 26, 2016. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports/?pageaction=displayproduct&productID=2259&utm_source=AHRQ&utm_medium=AHRQDPI&utm_content=2&utm_term=Publication&utm_campaign=AHRQ_CELIAC_2016.

Dolan, Laurie C., Ray A. Matulka, and George A. Burdock. "Naturally Occurring Food Toxins." Toxins 2, no. 9 (2010): 2289–332. doi:10.3390/toxins2092289.

Dolapchieva, S. "Distribution of concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin binding sites in the rat peripheral nerve fibres revealed by lectin/glycoprotein-gold histochemistry." The Histochemical Journal 28, no. 1 (1996): 7-12. doi:10.1007/bf02331422.

Dolfini, Ersilia. "Cytoskeleton reorganization and ultrastructural damage induced by gliadin in a three-dimensional in vitro model." World Journal of Gastroenterology 11, no. 48 (2005): 7597. doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i48.7597.

Drago, Sandro, Ramzi El Asmar, Mariarosaria Di Pierro, Maria Grazia Clemente, Amit Tripathi Anna Sapone, Manjusha Thakar, Giuseppe Iacono, Antonio Carroccio, Cinzia Dagate, Tarcisio Not, Lucia Zampini, Carlo Catassi, and Alessio Fasano. "Gliadin, zonulin and gut permeability: Effects on celiac and non-celiac intestinal mucosa and intestinal cell lines." Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 41, no. 4 (2006): 408-19. doi:10.1080/00365520500235334.

Duncan, Eric. "U.S. Gluten-free Foods Market—Statistics & Facts." Statista. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.statista.com/topics/2067/gluten-free-foods-market.

"Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on human gastrointestinal epithelium: Insights from an experimental model of immune/epithelial cell interaction." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology237, no. 2 (2009): 146-53. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.03.012.

Fälth-Magnusson, K., and K. E. Magnusson. "Elevated Levels of Serum Antibodies to the Lectin Wheat Germ Agglutinin in Celiac Children Lend Support to the Gluten-lectin Theory of Celiac Disease." Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 6, no. 2 (1995): 98-102.

Fasano, Alessio, Anna Sapone, Victor Zevallos, and Detlef Schuppan. "Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity." Gastroenterology 148, no. 6 (2015): 1195-204. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2014.12.049

Fasano, Alessio. "Zonulin, regulation of tight junctions, and autoimmune diseases." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1258, no. 1 (2012): 25-33. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06538.x.

Francis, George, Zohar Kerem, Harinder P. S. Makkar, and Klaus Becker. "The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review." British Journal of Nutrition 88, no. 06 (2002): 587. doi:10.1079/bjn2002725.

Fritz P., V. Tuczek, J. Hoenes, A. Mischlinski, A. Grau, C. Hage, A. Koenig, and G. Wegner. "Use of Lectin-immunohistochemistry in Joint Diseases." Acta Histochem Suppl 36 (1988): 277-83.

Grob, P M, and M A Bothwell. “ Modification of Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Properties by Wheat Germ Agglutinin.” J Biol Chem, vol. 258, no. 23, 1983, pp. 14136–4143.

Gupta, Raj Kishor, Shivraj Singh Gangoliya, and Nand Kumar Singh. "Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains." Journal of Food Science and Technology 52, no. 2 (2013): 676-84. doi:10.1007/s13197-013-0978-y.

Hallberg, L, et al. “Phytates and the Inhibitory Effect of Bran on Iron Absorption in Man .” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition988-96. Web., vol. 45, no. 5, 1987, pp. 988–96.

Hamid, Rabia, and Akbar Masood. "Dietary Lectins as Disease Causing Toxicants." Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8, no. 3 (2009): 293-303. doi:10.3923/pjn.2009.293.303

Imir, T, and A D Bankhurst. “ Inhibition of Natural Killer and Interleukin 2-Activated NF Cell Cytotoxicity by Monosaccharides and Lectins .” Mikrobiyol Bul 21, vol. 21, 1987, pp. 245–50.

Jacobs, E T, et al. “Intake of Supplemental and Total Fiber and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma Recurrence in the Wheat Bran Fiber Trial .” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, Prev 9, 2002, pp. 906–14.

Jenab, Mazda, and Lililan Thompson. "Role of Phytic Acid in Cancer and Other Diseases." Food Phytates, 2001. doi:10.1201/9781420014419.ch14.

Jongsma, Maarten A., and Caroline Bolter. "The adaptation of insects to plant protease inhibitors." Journal of Insect Physiology 43, no. 10 (1997): 885-95. doi:10.1016/s0022-1910(97)00040-1

Kitano, N, et al. “Detection of Antibodies against Wheat Germ Agglutinin Bound Glycoproteins on the Islet-Cell Membrane .” Diabetic Medicine , vol. 5, no. 2, 1988, pp. 139–44.

Kolberg, J, and L Sollid. “Lectin Activity of Gluten Identified as Wheat Germ Agglutinin.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 130, no. 2, 1985, pp. 867–72.

Laurin, Pia, Mats Wolving, and Karin Fälth-Magnusson. "Even Small Amounts of Gluten Cause Relapse in Children With Celiac Disease." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition34, no. 1 (2002): 26-30. doi:10.1097/00005176-200201000-00007

Lionetti, Elena, and Carlo Catassi. "New Clues in Celiac Disease Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, and Treatment." International Reviews of Immunology 30, no. 4 (2011): 219-31. doi:10.3109/08830185.2011.602443

Liuzzi, Grazia M, et al. “Regulation of Gelatinases in Microglia and Astrocyte Cell Cultures by Plant Lectins.” Glia, vol. 27, no. 1, 1999, pp. 53–61.

Liu, W.k., S.c.w. Sze, J.c.k. Ho, B.p.l. Liu, and M.c. Yu. "Wheat germ lectin induces G2/M arrest in mouse L929 fibroblasts." Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 91, no. 6 (2004): 1159-173. doi:10.1002/jcb.10755.

Ludvigsson, Jonas F. "Small-Intestinal Histopathology and Mortality Risk in Celiac Disease." Jama 302, no. 11 (2009): 1171. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1320.

Miller, Sara G. "Americans Claim Gluten Sensitivity More Than Others." LiveScience, May 08, 2017. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.livescience.com/59011-gluten-avoidance-different-countries.html.

Mishkind, M. "Immunocytochemical localization of wheat germ agglutinin in wheat." The Journal of Cell Biology 92, no. 3 (1982): 753-64. doi:10.1083/jcb.92.3.753

Mishkind, M. L., B. A. Palevitz, N. V. Raikhel, and K. Keegstra. "Localization of Wheat Germ Agglutinin--Like Lectins in Various Species of the Gramineae." Science 220, no. 4603 (1983): 1290-292. doi:10.1126/science.220.4603.1290

Miyake, Katsuya, Toru Tanaka, and Paul L. Mcneil. "Lectin-Based Food Poisoning: A New Mechanism of Protein Toxicity." PLoS ONE 2, no. 8 (2007). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000687.

Nachbar, Martin S, and Joel D Oppenheim. “Lectins in the United States Diet: A Survey of Lectins in Commonly Consumed Review of the Literature .” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 33, 1980, pp. 2338–345.

Nikulina, M., C. Habich, S. B. Flohe, F. W. Scott, and H. Kolb. "Wheat Gluten Causes Dendritic Cell Maturation and Chemokine Secretion." The Journal of Immunology 173, no. 3 (2004): 1925-933. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.173.3.1925

Osbourn, Anne. "Saponins and plant defence — a soap story." Trends in Plant Science1, no. 1 (1996): 4-9. doi:10.1016/s1360-1385(96)80016-1.

Papadopoulou, K., R. E. Melton, M. Leggett, M. J. Daniels, and A. E. Osbourn. "Compromised disease resistance in saponin-deficient plants." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences96, no. 22 (1999): 12923-2928. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.22.12923.

Parrish, Carol R. "Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Where are We Now in 2015?" Practical Gastroenterology, June 2015, 40-48.

Pellegrina, Chiara Dalla, Omar Perbellini, Maria Teresa Scupoli, Carlo Tomelleri, Chiara Zanetti, Gianni Zoccatelli, Marina Fusi, Angelo Peruffo, Corrado Rizzi, and Roberto Chignola.

Petroni, K., M. Trinei et al. "Dietary cyanidin 3-glucoside from purple corn ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice." Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 27, no. 5 (2017): 462–69. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2017.02.002.

Pruimboom, Leo, and Karin De Punder. "The opioid effects of gluten exorphins: asymptomatic celiac disease." Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 33, no. 1 (2015). doi:10.1186/s41043-015-0032-y.

Pusztai, A, et al. “Antinutritive Effects of Wheat-Germ Agglutinin and Other N-Acetylglucosamine-Specific Lectins .” British Journal of Nutrition 313, vol. 70, no. 1, 1993, p. 313.

Pusztai, A. “Dietary Lectins Are Metabolic Signals for the Gut and Modulate Immune and Hormonal Functions .” Eur J Clin Nutr , vol. 47, 1993, pp. 691–99.

Reddy, N.r., S.k. Sathe, and D.k. Salunkhe. "Phytates in Legumes and Cereals." Advances in Food Research Advances in Food Research Volume 28, 1982, 1-92. doi:10.1016/s0065-2628(08)60110-x.

Sapone, Anna, Julio C. Bai, Carolina Ciacci, Jernej Dolinsek, Peter Hr Green, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Katri Kaukinen, Kamran Rostami, David S. Sanders, Michael Schumann, Reiner Ullrich, Danilo Villalta, Umberto Volta, Carlo Catassi, and Alessio Fasano. "Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification." BMC Medicine 10, no. 1 (2012). doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-13.

Sasano, H., M. Rojas, and S. G. Silverberg. "Analysis of Lectin Binding in Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules." Arch Pathol Lab Med. 113.2 (1989): 186-89. Web.

Sollid, L. M., J. Kolberg, H. Scott, J. Ek, O. Fausa, and P. Brandtzaeg. "Antibodies to Wheat Germ Agglutinin in Coeliac Disease." Clin Exp Immunol 63, no. 1 (1986): 95-100.

Uhde, Melanie, Mary Ajamian, Giacomo Caio, Roberto De Giorgio, Alyssa Indart, Peter H. Green, Elizabeth C. Verna, Umberto Volta, and Armin Alaedini. "Intestinal cell damage and systemic immune activation in individuals reporting sensitivity to wheat in the absence of coeliac disease." Gut 65, no. 12 (2016): 1930–937. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311964.

Vojdani, Aristo, and Igal Tarash. "Cross-Reaction between Gliadin and Different Food and Tissue Antigens." Food and Nutrition Sciences 04, no. 01 (2013): 20-32. doi:10.4236/fns.2013.41005.

Watzl, Bernhard, Christian Neudecker, Gertrud M. Hänsch, Gerhard Rechkemmer, and Beatrice L. Pool-Zobel. "Dietary wheat germ agglutinin modulates ovalbumin-induced immune responses in Brown Norway rats." British Journal of Nutrition 85, no. 04 (2001): 483. doi:10.1017/s0007114501000721.

Wu, Felicia, Shaina L. Stacy, and Thomas W. Kensler. "Global Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins in Maize and Peanuts: Are Regulatory Standards Adequately Protective?" Toxicological Sciences 135, no. 1 (2013): 251-59. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kft132.

Zioudrou, Christine, Richard A. Streatu, and Werner A. Klee. "Opioid Peptides Derived from Food Proteins ." The Journal of Biological Chemistry 254, no. 7 (1979): 2446-449.

War, Abdul Rashid, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Tariq Ahmad, Abdul Ahad Buhroo, Barkat Hussain, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, and Hari Chand Sharma. "Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores." Plant Signaling & Behavior 7, no. 10 (2012): 1306-320. doi:10.4161/psb.21663


Breslin, Paul A. S. and Mari A. Sandell. "Variability in a taste-receptor gene determines whether we taste toxins in food." Current Biology 16, no. 18 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.08.049.

Perry, George H., Nathaniel J. Dominy, Katrina G. Claw, Arthur S. Lee, Heike Fiegler, Richard Redon, John Werner, Fernando A. Villanea, Joanna L. Mountain, Rajeev Misra, Nigel P. Carter, Charles Lee, and Anne C. Stone. "Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation." Nature Genetics 39, no. 10 (2007): 1256–260. doi:10.1038/ng2123.


Acheson,, K. J., Y. Schutz, T. Bessard, K. Anantharaman, J. P. Flatt, and E. Jéquier.

Barker, Nick. "Adult intestinal stem cells: critical drivers of epithelial homeostasis and regeneration." Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 15, no. 1 (2013): 19-33. doi:10.1038/nrm3721

Brown, Kenneth, Brandi Scott-Hoy, and Linda W. Jennings. "Response of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients administered a combined quebracho/conker tree/M. balsamea Willdextract." World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics 7, no. 3 (2016): 463. doi:10.4292/wjgpt.v7.i3.463.

Bjarnason, Ingvar, and Ken Takeuchi. "Intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy." Journal of Gastroenterology 44, no. S19 (2009): 23-29. doi:10.1007/s00535-008-2266-6.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Regulatory Affairs. "Approaches to Establish Thresholds for Major Food Allergens and for Gluten in Food." FDA.gov. March 2006. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/Allergens/ucm106108.htm.

Chatterjee, Ananya and Sandip K. Bandyopadhyay. "Herbal Remedy: An Alternate Therapy of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing." Ulcers 2014 (2014): 1–13. doi:10.1155/2014/361586.

Erickson, Roger H., Johann Kim, Marvin H. Sleisenger, and Young S. Kim. "Effect of Lectins on the Activity of Brush Border Membrane-Bound Enzymes of Rat Small Intestine." Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 4, no. 6 (1985): 984-91. doi:10.1097/00005176-198512000-00022.

Fedewa, Amy, and Satish S. C. Rao. "Dietary Fructose Intolerance, Fructan Intolerance and FODMAPs." Current Gastroenterology Reports 16, no. 1 (2013). doi:10.1007/s11894-013-0370-0.

El-Salhy, Magdy, and Doris Gundersen. "Diet in irritable bowel syndrome." Nutrition Journal 14, no. 1 (2015). doi:10.1186/s12937-015-0022-3.

Ghoshal, Uday C., Deepakshi Srivastava, Abhai Verma, and Asha Misra. "Slow Transit Constipation Associated With Excess Methane Production and Its Improvement Following Rifaximin Therapy: A Case Report." Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility 17, no. 2 (2011): 185-88. doi:10.5056/jnm.2011.17.2.185

Gibson, Peter R., and Susan J. Shepherd. "Evidence-based dietary management of functional gastrointestinal symptoms: The FODMAP approach." Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 25, no. 2 (2010): 252-58. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.06149.x

G. Sigthorsson, et al., “Intestinal permeability and inflammation in patients on NSAIDs,” Gut 43, no. 4 (1998): 506–11, https://doi:10.1136/gut.43.4.506.

Halmos, Emma P., Victoria A. Power, Susan J. Shepherd, Peter R. Gibson, and Jane G. Muir. "A Diet Low in FODMAPs Reduces Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome." Gastroenterology 146, no. 1 (2014). doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2013.09.046

Huebner, F.r., K.w. Lieberman, R.p. Rubino, and J.s. Wall. "Demonstration of high opioid-like activity in isolated peptides from wheat gluten hydrolysates." Peptides 5, no. 6 (1984): 1139-147. doi:10.1016/0196-9781(84)90180-3

Ingvar Bjarnason and Ken Takeuchi, “Intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy,” Journal of Gastroenterology 44, no. S19 (2009): 23–29, https://doi:10.1007/s00535-008-2266-6

Lorenzsonn, V, and W A Olsen. “In Vivo Responses of Rat Intestinal Epithelium to Intraluminal Dietary Lectins .” Gastroenterology , vol. 82, no. 1, 1982, pp. 838–48.

Nejad, Mohammad, et al. “Gluten Related Disorders .” Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench , vol. 5, no. 1, 2012, pp. S1–S7.

Sapone, Anna, Karen M. Lammers, Giuseppe Mazzarella, Irina Mikhailenko, Maria Cartenì, Vincenzo Casolaro, and Alessio Fasano. "Differential Mucosal IL-17 Expression in Two Gliadin-Induced Disorders: Gluten Sensitivity and the Autoimmune Enteropathy Celiac Disease." International Archives of Allergy and Immunology152, no. 1 (2010): 75-80. doi:10.1159/000260087.

Sapone, Anna, Karen M. Lammers, Vincenzo Casolaro, Marcella Cammarota, Maria Teresa Giuliano, Mario De Rosa, Rosita Stefanile, Giuseppe Mazzarella, Carlo Tolone, Maria Itria Russo, Pasquale Esposito, Franca Ferraraccio, Maria Cartenì, Gabriele Riegler, Laura De Magistris, and Alessio Fasano. "Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity." BMC Medicine 9, no. 1 (2011). doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-23.

Sigthorsson, G., J. Tibble, J. Hayllar, I. Menzies, A. Macpherson, R. Moots, D. Scott, M. J. Gumpel, and I. Bjarnason. "Intestinal permeability and inflammation in patients on NSAIDs." Gut 43, no. 4 (1998): 506-11. doi:10.1136/gut.43.4.506

Stowell, Sean R., Connie M. Arthur, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Lilian C. Rodrigues, Jean-Philippe Gourdine, Jamie Heimburg-Molinaro, Tongzhong Ju, Ross J. Molinaro, Carlos Rivera-Marrero, Baoyun Xia, David F. Smith, and Richard D. Cummings. "Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen." Nature Medicine 16, no. 3 (2010): 295-301. doi:10.1038/nm.2103.

Sundqvist, T. et al. "Influence of fasting on intestinal permeability and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 11, no. 1 (1982): 33–38.

Thurston, G, et al. “Permeability-Related Changes Revealed at Endothelial Cell Borders in Inflamed Venules by Lectin Binding .” American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology , vol. 271, no. 6, 1996, pp. H2547–2562

Umar, Shahid. "Intestinal Stem Cells." Current Gastroenterology Reports 12, no. 5 (2010): 340–48. doi:10.1007/s11894-010-0130-3.

Takahashi, Toku. "Mechanism of Interdigestive Migrating Motor Complex." Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility 18, no. 3 (2012): 246–57. doi:10.5056/jnm.2012.18.3.246.

Williamson, Robin C. N. "Intestinal Adaptation: Structural, Functional and Cytokinetic Changes." New England Journal of Medicine 298, no. 25 (1978): 1393-402. doi:10.1056/nejm197806222982505.

Yago, Marc R., Adam R. Frymoyer, Gillian S. Smelick, Lynda A. Frassetto, Nageshwar R. Budha, Mark J. Dresser, Joseph A. Ware, and Leslie Z. Benet. "Gastric Reacidification with Betaine HCl in Healthy Volunteers with Rabeprazole-Induced Hypochlorhydria." Molecular Pharmaceutics 10, no. 11 (2013): 4032-037. doi:10.1021/mp4003738.


“Butyrate As Therapy: Fatty Acid Produced By Gut Bacteria Boosts Immune System.” News, Science 2.0. Accessed November 14, 2013. http://www.science20.com/news_articles/butyrate_therapy_fatty_acid_produced_gut_bacteria_boosts_immune_system-124388.

Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti. “New-Found Link Between Microbiota and Obesity.” World of Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology 6, no. 4 (2015): 110, https://doi:10.4291/wjgp.v6.i4.110.

Claus, Sandrine P., Hervé Guillou, and Sandrine Ellero-Simatos. "The gut microbiota: a major player in the toxicity of environmental pollutants?" Npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 2, no. 1 (2016). doi:10.1038/npjbiofilms.2016.3.

Remely, Marlene, et al. "Increased gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia after fasting: a pilot study." Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 127, no. 9–10 (2015): 394–98. doi:10.1007/s00508-015-0755-1.

Stanaway, Ian B., James C. Wallace, Ali Shojaie, William C. Griffith, Sungwoo Hong, Carly S. Wilder, Foad H. Green, Jesse Tsai, Misty Knight, Tomomi Workman, Eric M. Vigoren, Jeffrey S. Mclean, Beti Thompson, and Elaine M. Faustman. "Human Oral Buccal Microbiomes Are Associated with Farmworker Status and Azinphos-Methyl Agricultural Pesticide Exposure." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 83, no. 2 (2016). doi:10.1128/aem.02149-16.


Anson, R. M., Z. Guo, R. De Cabo, T. Iyun, M. Rios, A. Hagepanos, D. K. Ingram, M. A. Lane, and M. P. Mattson. "Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, no. 10 (2003): 6216-220. doi:10.1073/pnas.1035720100

Aksungar, Fehime B., Aynur E. Topkaya, and Mahmut Akyildiz. "Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein and Biochemical Parameters during Prolonged Intermittent Fasting." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 51, no. 1 (2007): 88-95. doi:10.1159/000100954.

Azevedo, Fernanda Reis De, Dimas Ikeoka, and Bruno Caramelli. "Effects of intermittent fasting on metabolism in men." Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira59, no. 2 (2013): 167-73. doi:10.1016/j.ramb.2012.09.003.

Cahill, G.f. "Starvation in man." Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism 5, no. 2 (1976): 397-415. doi:10.1016/s0300-595x(76)80028-x.

Carlson, Michael G, et al. “Fuel and Energy Metabolism in Fasting Humans.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 60, no. 1, 1994, pp. 29–36.

Vollmers, Christopher, Shubhroz Gill, Luciano Ditacchio, Sandhya R. Pulivarthy, Hiep D. Le, and Satchidananda Panda. "Time of feeding and the intrinsic circadian clock drive rhythms in hepatic gene expression." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, no. 50 (2009): 21453-1458. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909591106.

Cheng, Chia-Wei et al. "Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression." Cell Stem Cell 14, no. 6 (2014): 810–23. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014.

CMAJ. "Intermittent Fasting: The Science Of Going Without." CMAJ News. Accessed April 8, 2013. http://www.cmaj.ca/content/early/2013/04/08/cmaj.109-4451.full.pdf

Elia, M., C. Zed, G. Neale, and G. Livesey. "The energy cost of triglyceride-fatty acid recycling in nonobese subjects after an overnight fast and four days of starvation." Metabolism 36, no. 3 (1987): 251–55. doi:10.1016/0026-0495(87)90184-3.

Eshghinia, Samira, and Fatemeh Mohammadzadeh. "The effects of modified alternate-day fasting diet on weight loss and CAD risk factors in overweight and obese women." Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 12, no. 1 (2013): 4. doi:10.1186/2251-6581-12-4.

Faris, “Moez Al-Islam” E., Safia Kacimi, Refat A. Al-Kurd, Mohammad A. Fararjeh, Yasser K. Bustanji, Mohammad K. Mohammad, and Mohammad L. Salem. "Intermittent fasting during Ramadan attenuates proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells in healthy subjects." Nutrition Research 32, no. 12 (2012): 947–55. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2012.06.021.

Goodrick, Charles L., Donald K. Ingram, Mark A. Reynolds, John R. Freeman, and Nancy L. Cider. "Effects of Intermittent Feeding Upon Growth and Life Span in Rats." Gerontology 28, no. 4 (2009): 233–41. doi:10.1159/000212538.

Halberg, N. "Effect of intermittent fasting and refeeding on insulin action in healthy men." Journal of Applied Physiology 99, no. 6 (2005): 2128-136. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00683.2005termtnMedCtr. "Study finds routine periodic fasting is good for your health, and your heart." EurekAlert! April 03, 2011. Accessed August 15, 2017. https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-04/imc-sfr033111.php.

Harvie, Michelle, Claire Wright, Mary Pegington, Debbie Mcmullan, Ellen Mitchell, Bronwen Martin, Roy G. Cutler, Gareth Evans, Sigrid Whiteside, Stuart Maudsley, Simonetta Camandola, Rui Wang, Olga D. Carlson, Josephine M. Egan, Mark P. Mattson, and Anthony Howell. "The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women." British Journal of Nutrition 110, no. 08 (2013): 1534-547. doi:10.1017/s0007114513000792.

Harvie, Michelle, et al. "The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women." British Journal of Nutrition 110, no. 08 (2013): 1534–547. doi:10.1017/s0007114513000792.

Hatori, Megumi, Christopher Vollmers, Amir Zarrinpar, Luciano Ditacchio, Eric A. Bushong, Shubhroz Gill, Mathias Leblanc, Amandine Chaix, Matthew Joens, James A.J. Fitzpatrick, Mark H. Ellisman, and Satchidananda Panda. "Time-Restricted Feeding without Reducing Caloric Intake Prevents Metabolic Diseases in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet." Cell Metabolism 15, no. 6 (2012): 848-60. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.019.

bronn, Leonie L., Steven R. Smith, Corby K. Martin, Stephen D. Anton, and Eric Revussin. "Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism." Am J Clin Nutr 81, no. 1 (January 2005): 69–73.

Ho, K. Y., J. D. Veldhuis, M. L. Johnson, R. Furlanetto, W. S. Evans, K. G. Alberti, and M. O. Thorner. "Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man." Journal of Clinical Investigation 81, no. 4 (1988): 968-75. doi:10.1172/jci113450.

Horne, B. D., J. B. Muhlestein, and J. L. Anderson. "Health effects of intermittent fasting: hormesis or harm? A systematic review." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 102, no. 2 (2015): 464-70. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.109553.

Horton, T J, and J O Hill. “Prolonged Fasting Significantly Changes Nutrient Oxidation and Glucose Tolerance after a Normal Mixed Meal.” Journal of Applied Physiology , vol. 90, no. 1, 2001, pp. 155–63.

Ibrahim, Wissam H. et al. "Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Serum Biochemical Markers of Cellular Damage in Healthy Subjects." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 53, no. 3–4 (2008): 175–81. doi:10.1159/000172979

Intermountain Medical Center. "Routine periodic fasting is good for your health, and your heart, study suggests." ScienceDaily (May 20, 2011). Accessed August 16, 2017. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110403090259.htm.

Kanazawa, Motoyori, and Shin Fukudo. "Effects of fasting therapy on irritable bowel syndrome." International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 13, no. 3 (2006): 214–20. doi:10.1207/s15327558ijbm1303_4.

Kim, Yong-Woon, and Philip J Scarpace. “Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Elevates Plasma Leptin without Increasing Fat Mass in Rats .” Physiology & Behavior , vol. 78, no. 3, 2003, pp. 459–64.

Klempel, Monica C., Cynthia M. Kroeger, and Krista A. Varady. "Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet." Metabolism 62, no. 1 (2013): 137-43. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2012.07.002.

Lavin, Desiree N., Jennifer J. Joesting, Gabriel S. Chiu, Morgan L. Moon, Jia Meng, Ryan N. Dilger, and Gregory G. Freund. "Fasting Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect on the Neuroimmune System Which a High-Fat Diet Prevents." Obesity 19, no. 8 (2011): 1586–594. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.73.

Longo, Valter D., and Mark P. Mattson. "Fasting: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications." Cell Metabolism 19, no. 2 (2014): 181-92. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.008

Mattson, M. P. and R. Wan. “Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems.” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 16(3), (2015): 129–137.

Soeters, M. R., P. B. Soeters, M. G. Schooneman, S. M. Houten, and J. A. Romijn. "Adaptive Reciprocity of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Human Short-term Starvation." AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism 303.12 (2012): E1397-1407. Http://classic.ajpendo.physiology.org. Web. 6 Sept. 2014. Soeters, M. R., P. B. Soeters, M. G. Schooneman, S. M. Houten, and J. A. Romijn. "Adaptive reciprocity of lipid and glucose metabolism in human short-term starvation." AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism 303, no. 12 (2012). doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00397.2012.

Teng, Nur Islami et al. "Efficacy of fasting calorie restriction on quality of life among aging men." Physiology & Behavior 104, no. 5 (2011): 1059–064. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.07.007.

Varady, K. A. "Alternate Day Fasting: Effects on Body Weight and Chronic Disease Risk in Humans and Animals." Comparative Physiology of Fasting, Starvation, and Food Limitation, (May 17, 2012): 395-408.

Varady, Krista A. et al. "Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial." Nutrition Journal 12, no. 1 (2013). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-146.

Varady, K. A. "Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?" Obesity Reviews 12, no. 7 (2011). doi:10.1111/j.1467-789x.2011.00873.x.

Varady, K. A. et al. "Modified alternate-day fasting regimens reduce cell proliferation rates to a similar extent as daily calorie restriction in mice." The FASEB Journal 22, no. 6 (2008): 2090–096. doi:10.1096/fj.07-098178.

Varady, K. A., S. Bhutani, E. C. Church, and M. C. Klempel. "Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 5 (2009): 1138–143. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28380.

Wan, Ruiqian, Simonetta Camandola, and Mark P. Mattson. "Intermittent Food Deprivation Improves Cardiovascular and Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress in Rats." Journal of Nutrition 133, no. 6 (June 1, 2003): 1921–29. Accessed August 16, 2017.


"A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus a Low-Fat Diet to Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial." Yearbook of Pediatrics 2006 (2006): 427-31. doi:10.1016/s0084-3954(07)70252-x.

Deans, Emily, M.D. "Your Brain on Ketones." Psychology Today. April 18, 2011. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolutionary-psychiatry/201104/your-brain-ketones.

Feinman, Richard D., and Mary Makowske. "Metabolic Syndrome and Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets in the Medical School Biochemistry Curriculum." Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 1, no. 3 (2003): 189-97. doi:10.1089/154041903322716660

Freeman, J M, et al. “The Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet---1998: A Prospective Evaluation of Intervention in 150 Children.” Pediatrics 102.6 , vol. 102, no. 6, 1998, pp. 1358–363.

Chowdhury, Golam Mi, Lihong Jiang, Douglas L. Rothman, and Kevin L. Behar. "The Contribution of Ketone Bodies to Basal and Activity-Dependent Neuronal Oxidation in Vivo." Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 34, no. 7 (2014): 1233-242. doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.77

Guzmán, Manuel, and Cristina Blázquez. "Ketone body synthesis in the brain: possible neuroprotective effects." Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 70, no. 3 (2004): 287–92. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.05.001.

Kesl, Shannon L., Angela M. Poff, Nathan P. Ward, Tina N. Fiorelli, Csilla Ari, Ashley J. Van Putten, Jacob W. Sherwood, Patrick Arnold, and Dominic P. D’Agostino. "Effects of exogenous ketone supplementation on blood ketone, glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels in Sprague–Dawley rats." Nutrition & Metabolism 13, no. 1 (2016). doi:10.1186/s12986-016-0069-y.

Lutas, Andrew, and Gary Yellen. "The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy." Trends in Neurosciences 36, no. 1 (2013): 32-40. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2012.11.005.

Paoli, Antonio, Gerardo Bosco, Enrico M. Camporesi, and Devanand Mangar. "Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship." Frontiers in Psychology 6 (2015). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00027

Poff, Angela, Nathan Ward, Dominic D’Agostino, and Thomas Seyfried. "Combination ketogenic diet, ketone supplementation, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits metastatic spread, slows tumor growth, and increases survival time in mice with metastatic cancer (123.7)." The FASEB Journal, 123.7rd ser., 28, no. 1 (April 2014).

Poff, Angela, Shannon Kesl, Nathan Ward, and Dominic D’Agostino. "Metabolic effects of exogenous ketone supplementation – an alternative or adjuvant to the ketogenic diet as a cancer therapy?" The FASEB Journal, 1167.2th ser., 3, no. 1 (April 2016).

Qiao, Yue, Zhaohua Gao, Yong Liu, Yan Cheng, Mengxiao Yu, Lingling Zhao, Yixiang Duan, and Yu Liu. "Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis." BioMed Research International 2014 (2014): 1-5. doi:10.1155/2014/869186.

Youm, Yun-Hee, Kim Y. Nguyen, Ryan W. Grant, Emily L. Goldberg, Monica Bodogai, Dongin Kim, Dominic Dagostino, Noah Planavsky, Christopher Lupfer, Thirumala D. Kanneganti, Seokwon Kang, Tamas L. Horvath, Tarek M. Fahmy, Peter A. Crawford, Arya Biragyn, Emad Alnemri, and Vishwa Deep Dixit. "The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate blocks NLRP3 inflammasome–mediated inflammatory disease." Nature Medicine, 2015. doi:10.1038/nm.3804.

Zeevi, David, Tal Korem, Niv Zmora, David Israeli, Daphna Rothschild, Adina Weinberger, Orly Ben-Yacov, Dar Lador, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Jotham Suez, Jemal Ali Mahdi, Elad Matot, Gal Malka, Noa Kosower, Michal Rein, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Lenka Dohnalová, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Rony Bikovsky, Zamir Halpern, Eran Elinav, and Eran Segal. "Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses." Cell 163, no. 5 (2015): 1079-094. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001.

Zeevi, David, Tal Korem, Niv Zmora, David Israeli, Daphna Rothschild, Adina Weinberger, Orly Ben-Yacov, Dar Lador, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Jotham Suez, Jemal Ali Mahdi, Elad Matot, Gal Malka, Noa Kosower, Michal Rein, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Lenka Dohnalová, Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Rony Bikovsky, Zamir Halpern, Eran Elinav, and Eran Segal. "Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses." Cell 163, no. 5 (2015): 1079-094. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001.

MEAL FREQUENCY (Breakfast, Snacks, Night Eating, Etc.)

Arnal, Marie-Agnès, et al. "Protein Feeding Pattern Does Not Affect Protein Retention in Young Women." Journal of Nutrition vol. 130, no. 7 (July 1, 2000): 1700–704.

Bellisle, France, Regina Mcdevitt, and Andrew M. Prentice. "Meal frequency and energy balance." British Journal of Nutrition 77, no. S1 (1997). doi:10.1079/bjn19970104.

Betts, J. A., J. D. Richardson, E. A. Chowdhury, G. D. Holman, K. Tsintzas, and D. Thompson. "The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100, no. 2 (2014): 539-47. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.083402.

Brown, A. W., M. M. Bohan Brown, and D. B. Allison. "Belief beyond the evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, no. 5 (2013): 1298–308. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.064410.

Carlson, Olga, et al. "Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal-weight middle-aged men and women." Metabolism 56, no. 12 (2007): 1729–734. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2007.07.018.

Chapelot, D. “The Role of Snacking in Energy Balance: a Biobehavioral Approach." Journal of Nutrition 141, no. 1 (2010): 158–62. doi:10.3945/jn.109.114330.

Dallosso, H. M., P. R. Murgatroyd, and W. P. James. "Feeding frequency and energy balance in adult males." Human Nutrition Clinical Nutrition 36C, no. 1 (January 1982): 25–39.

Dhurandhar, E. J. et al. "The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100, no. 2 (2014): 507–13. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.089573.

Ensinck, J. W., R. E. Vogel, E. C. Laschansky, and B. H. Francis. "Effect of ingested carbohydrate, fat, and protein on the release of somatostatin-28 in humans." Gastroenterology 98, no. 3 (March 1990). Accessed August 15, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1967585.

Geliebter, Allan et al. "Skipping Breakfast Leads to Weight Loss but Also Elevated Cholesterol Compared with Consuming Daily Breakfasts of Oat Porridge or Frosted Cornflakes in Overweight Individuals: A Randomised Controlled Trial." Journal of Nutritional Science 3 (2014): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4473164/

Gonnissen, H. K. et al. "Overnight energy expenditure determined by whole-body indirect calorimetry does not differ during different sleep stages." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98, no. 4 (2013): 867–71. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.067884.

Graaf, Cees de. “Effects of Snacks on Energy Intake: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Appetite 47, no. 1 (2006): 18–23, https://doi:10.1016/j.appet.2006.02.007.

Kanarek, Robin. “Psychological Effects of Snacks and Altered Meal Frequency.” British Journal of Nutrition 77, no. S1 (1997): S105.

Kinsey, Amber W. et al. "Influence of night-time protein and carbohydrate intake on appetite and cardiometabolic risk in sedentary overweight and obese women." British Journal of Nutrition 112, no. 03 (2014): 320–27. doi:10.1017/s0007114514001068.

Kinsey, Amber and Michael Ormsbee. "The Health Impact of Nighttime Eating: Old and New Perspectives." Nutrients 7, no. 4 (2015): 2648–662. doi:10.3390/nu7042648.

Kral, T. V., L. M. Whiteford, M. Heo, and M. S. Faith. "Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93, no. 2 (2010): 284–91. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.000505.

Levitsky, David A. and Carly R. Pacanowski. "Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake." Physiology & Behavior 119 (2013): 9–16. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.05.006.

Martin, Ambroise et al. "Is advice for breakfast consumption justified? Results from a short-term dietary and metabolic experiment in young healthy men." British Journal of Nutrition 84, no. 03 (2000): 337–44. doi:10.1017/s0007114500001616.

Mattson, Mark P. " Energy Intake, Meal Frequencty, And Health: A Neurobiological Perspective." Annual Review of Nutrition 25, no. 1 (2005): 237-60. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092526.

Mattson, Mark P., Wenzhen Duan, and Zhihong Guo. "Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms." Journal of Neurochemistry 84, no. 3 (2003): 417-31. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01586.x

Munsters, Marjet J. M., and Wim H. M. Saris. "Effects of Meal Frequency on Metabolic Profiles and Substrate Partitioning in Lean Healthy Males." PLoS ONE 7, no. 6 (2012). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038632.

Murphy, Michelle, and Julian Mercer. "Intermittent Feeding Schedules—Behavioural Consequences and Potential Clinical Significance." Nutrients 6, no. 3 (2014): 985-1002. doi:10.3390/nu6030985

Natalucci, G., S. Riedl, A. Gleiss, T. Zidek, and H. Frisch. "Spontaneous 24-h ghrelin secretion pattern in fasting subjects: maintenance of a meal-related pattern." European Journal of Endocrinology 152, no. 6 (2005): 845–50. doi:10.1530/eje.1.01919

Nedeltcheva, Arlet V. et al. "Insufficient Sleep Undermines Dietary Efforts to Reduce Adiposity." Annals of Internal Medicine 153, no. 7 (2010): 435. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-153-7-201010050-00006.

Nonino-Borges, Carla Barbosa, Ricardo Martins Borges, Marinella Bavaresco, Vivian M.m. Suen, Ayrton Custódio Moreira, and Júlio Sérgio Marchini. "Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women." Nutrition 23, no. 5 (2007): 385–91. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2007.02.007.

Ravussin, E. et al. “Determinants of 24-Hour Energy Expenditure in Man. Methods and Results Using a Respiratory Chamber.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 78, no. 6 (1986): 1568–578, https://doi.10.1172/jci112749.

Reynolds, N. C., and R. Montgomery. "Using the Argonne diet in jet lag prevention: deployment of troops across nine time zones." Mil Med 167, no. 6 (June 2002): 451–3.

Seyfried, Thomas N. and Purna Mukherjee. Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 1 (2005): 30. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-30.

Sofer, Sigal et al. "Greater Weight Loss and Hormonal Changes After 6 Months Diet With Carbohydrates Eaten Mostly at Dinner." Obesity 19, no. 10 (2011): 2006–014. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.48.

Taylor, M. A., and J. S. Garrow. "Compared with nibbling, neither gorging nor a morning fast affect short-term energy balance in obese patients in a chamber calorimeter." International Journal of Obesity 25, no. 4 (2001): 519–28. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801572.

Weinsier, R. L. et al. "Energy Expenditure and Free-living Physical Activity in Black and White Women: Comparison before and after Weight Loss." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 5 (2000): 1138–46.

Wilhelmine P. H. G. Verboeket-Van De Venne, Klaas R. Westerterp, and Arnold D. M. Kester. "Effect of the pattern of food intake on human energy metabolism." British Journal of Nutrition70, no. 01 (1993): 103. doi:10.1079/bjn19930108.

Williams, P. G. "The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base." Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 5, no. 5 (2014). doi:10.3945/an.114.006247.


Levine, J. A. "Nonexercise activity thermogenesis ? liberating the life-force." Journal of Internal Medicine 262, no. 3 (2007): 273-87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01842.x

Loeffelholz, Christian von. “The Role of Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis in Human Obesity.” Endotext (June 5, 2014).

Nieman, D.c. "Nonprescribed physical activity energy expenditure is maintained with structured exercise and implicates a compensatory increase in energy intake." Yearbook of Sports Medicine 2012 (2012): 189-90. doi:10.1016/j.yspm.2011.09.010.


Berg, Christina et al. “Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population.” Appetite 52, no. 1 (2009): 21–26. Accessed August 12, 2017.

Bouchard, Claude et al. “The Response to Long-Term Overfeeding in Identical Twins.” New England Journal of Medicine 322, no. 21 (1990): 1477–482, https://doi:10.1056/nejm199005243222101.

Loveman, E. et al. "The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of long-term weight management schemes for adults: a systematic review." Health Technology Assessment 15, no. 2 (2011): doi:10.3310/hta15020.

Ogden, Cynthia L., et al. "Trends in Obesity Prevalence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 Through 2013-2014." Journal of American Medical Association 315, no. 21 (2016): 2292. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.6361.

Rettner, Rachael. "Obesity Rate in U.S. Women Climbs to 40%." LiveScience. June 07, 2016. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.livescience.com/54994-obesity-rate-women.html.

Rodin, Judith. "Insulin levels, hunger, and food intake: An example of feedback loops in body weight regulation." Health Psychology 4, no. 1 (1985): 1-24. doi:10.1037//0278-6133.4.1.1

Wadden, T. A., G. D. Foster, K. A. Letizia, and J. L. Mullen. "Long-term Effects of Dieting on Resting Metabolic Rate in Obese Outpatients." JAMA 264, no. 6 (1990): 707–11.

Winocur, Gordon, Carol E. Greenwood, Gerardo G. Piroli, Claudia A. Grillo, Leah R. Reznikov, Lawrence P. Reagan, and Bruce S. Mcewen. "Memory impairment in obese Zucker rats: An investigation of cognitive function in an animal model of insulin resistance and obesity." Behavioral Neuroscience 119, no. 5 (2005): 1389-395. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.119.5.1389

PALEO (Hunter-Gatherer Diet)

Cordain, L., S. B. Eaton, J. Brand Miller, N. Mann, and K. Hill. "The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, no. S1 (2002). doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601353

Eaton, S. Boyd. "The ancestral human diet: what was it and should it be a paradigm for contemporary nutrition?" Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 65, no. 01 (2006): 1–6. doi:10.1079/pns2005471.

Eaton, Boyd, and Dorothy A. Nelson, “Calcium in Evolutionary Perspective,” The American Journal of Medicine 84, no. 4 (1988): 739–49.

Eaton, Boyd, Melvin Konner, and Marjorie Shostak. "Stone Agers in the Fast Lane: Chronic Degenerative Diseases in Evolutionary Perspective." The American Journal of Medicine 84, no. 4 (1988 ): 739-49.

Frassetto, L. A., M. Schloetter, M. Mietus-Synder, R. C. Morris, and A. Sebastian. "Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, no. 12 (2015): 1376. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.193.

Jönsson, Tommy, Yvonne Granfeldt, Bo Ahrén, Ulla-Carin Branell, Gunvor Pålsson, Anita Hansson, Margareta Söderström, and Staffan Lindeberg. "Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study." Cardiovascular Diabetology 8, no. 1 (2009): 35. doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-35.

Konner, Melvin, and S. Boyd Eaton. "Paleolithic Nutrition." Nutrition in Clinical Practice 25, no. 6 (December 25, 2010): 594-602. doi:10.1177/0884533610385702.

Lindeberg, S., T. Jönsson, Y. Granfeldt, E. Borgstrand, J. Soffman, K. Sjöström, and B. Ahrén. "A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease." Diabetologia 50, no. 9 (2007): 1795–807. doi:10.1007/s00125-007-0716-y.

Weyrich, Laura S., Sebastian Duchene, Julien Soubrier, Luis Arriola, Bastien Llamas, James Breen, Alan G. Morris, Kurt W. Alt, David Caramelli, Veit Dresely, Milly Farrell, Andrew G. Farrer, Michael Francken, Neville Gully, Wolfgang Haak, Karen Hardy, Katerina Harvati, Petra Held, Edward C. Holmes, John Kaidonis, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco De La Rasilla, Antonio Rosas, Patrick Semal, Arkadiusz Soltysiak, Grant Townsend, Donatella Usai, Joachim Wahl, Daniel H. Huson, Keith Dobney, and Alan Cooper. "Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus." Nature 544, no. 7650 (2017): 357–61. doi:10.1038/nature21674.


"Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: environmental impacts and ethics." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8, no. 1 (March 1995): 17-29

Benachour, Nora, and Gilles-Eric Séralini. "Glyphosate Formulations Induce Apoptosis and Necrosis in Human Umbilical, Embryonic, and Placental Cells." Chemical Research in Toxicology22, no. 1 (2009): 97-105. doi:10.1021/tx800218n

Bradberry, S. M., A. T. Proudfoot, and J. A. Vale. "Glyphosate poisoning." Toxicol Rev. 23, no. 3 (2004): 159-67

Curl, Cynthia L., Richard A. Fenske, and Kai Elgethun. "Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure of Urban and Suburban Preschool Children with Organic and Conventional Diets." Environmental Health Perspectives 111, no. 3 (2002): 377-82. doi:10.1289/ehp.5754

Du, Jian, Zoya Gridneva, Melvin C. L. Gay, Ching T. Lai, Robert D. Trengove, Peter E. Hartmann, and Donna T. Geddes. "Longitudinal study of pesticide residue levels in human milk from Western Australia during 12 months of lactation: Exposure assessment for infants." Scientific Reports 6, no. 1 (2016). doi:10.1038/srep38355.

Gasnier, Céline, Coralie Dumont, Nora Benachour, Emilie Clair, Marie-Christine Chagnon, and Gilles-Eric Séralini. "Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines." Toxicology 262, no. 3 (2009): 184–91. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2009.06.006.

Hamid, Almas, Ghazala Yaqub, Sajid Rashid Ahmed, and Nida Aziz. "Assessment of human health risk associated with the presence of pesticides in chicken eggs." Food Science and Technology (Campinas), no. Ahead (2017): 0. doi:10.1590/1678-457x.11616

Kim, Ki-Hyun, Ehsanul Kabir, and Shamin Ara Jahan. "Exposure to pesticides and the associated human health effects." Science of The Total Environment 575 (2017): 525-35. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.009

Mesnage, Robin, Nicolas Defarge, Joël Spiroux De Vendômois, and Gilles-Eric Séralini. "Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles." BioMed Research International (2014): 1-8. doi:10.1155/2014/179691.

Pesticide Data Program: Annual Summary Calendar Year 2015." AMS.USDA.gov. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/2015PDPAnnualSummary.pdf.

Bradberry, S. M., A. T. Proudfoot, and J. A. Vale. "Glyphosate poisoning." Toxicol Rev. 23, no. 3 (2004): 159-67

USDA. "United States Standards for Livestock and Meat Marketing Claims, Grass (Forage) Fed Claim for Ruminant Livestock and the Meat Products Derived From Such Livestock." AMS.USDA.gov. Accessed August 18, 2017. https://www.ams.usda.gov/sites/default/files/media/Grass%20Fed%20Standard%20%20%28WITHDRAWN%29.pdf.


Bocarsly, M. E. et al. “High-fructose Corn Syrup Causes Characteristics of Obesity in Rats: Increased Body Weight, Body Fat and Triglyceride Levels.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 97, no. 1 (2010): 101–06.

Claesson, Anna-Lena, Gunilla Holm, Åsa Ernersson, Torbjörn Lindström, and Fredrik H. Nystrom. "Two weeks of overfeeding with candy, but not peanuts, increases insulin levels and body weight." Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 69, no. 5 (2009): 598-605. doi:10.1080/00365510902912754

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21." U.S. Food & Drug Administration . April 1, 2016. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=101.22.

Marcela, Joseph. "U.S. Foods Chockfull of Ingredients Banned in Other Countries." Mercola.com. February 27, 2013. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/02/27/us-food-products.aspx.

Parker, Hilary. “A Sweet Problem: Princeton Researchers Find that High-Fructose Corn Syrup Prompts Considerably More Weight Gain.” News, Princeton University. Accessed March 22, 2010. https://www.princeton.edu/news/2010/03/22/sweet-problem-princeton-researchers-find-high-fructose-corn-syrup-prompts.

Potera, Carol. "The Artificial Food Dye Blues." Environmental Health Perspectives 118, no. 10 (2010). doi:10.1289/ehp.118-a428.

Sampey, Brante P., Amanda M. Vanhoose, Helena M. Winfield, Alex J. Freemerman, Michael J. Muehlbauer, Patrick T. Fueger, Christopher B. Newgard, and Liza Makowski. "Cafeteria Diet Is a Robust Model of Human Metabolic Syndrome With Liver and Adipose Inflammation: Comparison to High-Fat Diet." Obesity 19, no. 6 (2011): 1109-117. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.18.

Toops, Diane. “A History.” Food Processing, October 5, 2010. http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2010/anniversary.


Belko, Amy Z., and Teresa F. Barbieri. "Effect of meal size and frequency on the thermic effect of food." Nutrition Research 7, no. 3 (1987): 237–42. doi:10.1016/s0271-5317(87)80013-1.

Kniffin, Kevin M., Mitsuru Shimzu, and Brian Wansink, “Death Row Nutrition. Curious Conclusions of Last Meals.” Appetite 59, no. 3 (2012): 837–43, https://doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.08.017.

Putranto, Lystia, “The Top Ten Most Popular Food Hashtags You Should Be Using on Social Media,” Book Culinary Vacations (blog), September 16, 2015, https://www.bookculinaryvacations.com/news/the-top-ten-most-popular-food-hashtags.

Wansink, B. and C. S. Wansink. “The Largest Last Supper: Depictions of Food Portions and Plate Size Increased Over the Millennium.” International Journal of Obesity 34, no. 5 (2010): 943–44. https://doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.37.


"2015 Agriculture Chemical Use Survey: Soybeans." NASS.USDA.gov. May 2016. Accessed August 10, 2017. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Surveys/Guide_to_NASS_Surveys/Chemical_Use/2015_Cotton_Oats_Soybeans_Wheat_Highlights/ChemUseHighlights_Soybeans_2015.pdf.No. 2016-4

"Adoption of Genetically Engineered Crops in the U.S." USDA.gov. July 12, 2017. Accessed August 10, 2017. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/adoption-of-genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-us.aspx.

"Committee Opinion No. 549: Obesity in Pregnancy." Obstetrics & Gynecology 121, no. 1 (2013): 213–17. doi:10.1097/01.aog.0000425667.10377.60.

Herman, E. M. "Genetically modified soybeans and food allergies." Journal of Experimental Botany 54, no. 386 (2003): 1317-319. doi:10.1093/jxb/erg164.

Hilakivi-Clarke, L., J. E. Andrade, and W. Helferich. "Is Soy Consumption Good or Bad for the Breast?" Journal of Nutrition 140, no. 12 (2010). doi:10.3945/jn.110.124230.

Kaayla, Daniel T. The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America's Favorite Health Food. Washington DC: New Trends Publishing , 2005.

Moyer, Melinda. "Food Wars: The Truth About Soy." Self, May 2015, 89–93.


Avena, Nicole M., Pedro Rada, and Bartley G. Hoebel. "Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 32, no. 1 (2008): 20–39. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.04.019.

Basu, Sanjay, Paula Yoffe, Nancy Hills, and Robert H. Lustig. "The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data." PLoS ONE 8, no. 2 (2013). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873.

Kearns, Cristin E., Laura A. Schmidt, and Stanton A. Glantz. "Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research." JAMA Internal Medicine 176, no. 11 (2016): 1680. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5394.

Moerman, Clara J., H. Bas De Mesquita, and Sytske Runia. "Dietary Sugar Intake in the Aetiology of Biliary Tract Cancer." Internationcal Journal of Epidemiology 22, no. 2 (1993): 207-14. doi:10.1093/ije/22.2.207.

Mohanty, Priya, Wael Hamouda, Rajesh Garg, Ahmad Aljada, Husam Ghanim, and Paresh Dandona. "Glucose Challenge Stimulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generation by Leucocytes." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 85, no. 8 (2000): 2970-973. doi:10.1210/jcem.85.8.6854.

Nöthlings, Ute, et al. “Dietary Glycemic Load, Added Sugars, and Carbohydrates as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 5 (2007): pp. 1495–501.

O'Connor, Anahad. "Sugar Backers Paid to Shift Blame to Fat." The New York Times, September 13, 2016.

Sanchez, A., Reeser, J. L., Lau, H. S., Yahiku, P. Y., Willard, R. E., McMillan, P. J., . . . Register, U. D. (1973). Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 26(11), 1180-1184.

Sanchez, Albert, et al. “Role of Sugars in Human Neutrophilic Phagocytosis.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 26, no. 1 (1973): pp. 1180–184.

"What Is Cholesterol?" National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Accessed August 08, 2017. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbc.

National Center for Biotechnology Information. "Sucrose." PubChem Compound Database. Accessed August 21, 2017.


Abdelmalek. "Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease." Journal of Hepatology 48, no. 6 (2008): 993-99. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2008.02.011

Basciano, Heather, Lisa Federico, and Khosrow Adeli. "Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia." Nutrition & Metabolism 2, no. 1 (2005): 5. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-5

Bocarsly, Miriam E., Elyse S. Powell, Nicole M. Avena, and Bartley G. Hoebel. "High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 97, no. 1 (2010): 101-06. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2010.02.012.

Bray, George A., Samara J. Nielsen, and Barry M. Popkin. " Consumption of High-fructose Corn Syrup in Beverages May Play a Role in the Epidemic of Obesity ." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 4 (2004): 537-43.

Buul, Vincent J. Van, Luc Tappy, and Fred J. P. H. Brouns. "Misconceptions about fructose-containing sugars and their role in the obesity epidemic." Nutrition Research Reviews 27, no. 01 (2014): 119-30. doi:10.1017/s0954422414000067.

Farooqui, Akhlaq A. "Glucose- and Fructose-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Brain." Metabolic Syndrome, 2013, 35-66. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7318-3_2.

Levi, Boaz, and Moshe J Werman. “Long-Term Fructose Consumption Accelerates Glycation and Several Age-Related Variables in Male Rats.” Journal of Nutrition , vol. 128, no. 9, 1998, pp. 1442–449.

Mayes, P. A. "Intermediary Metabolism of Fructose." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58 58, no. 5 Suppl (November 1993): 754S-65S.

Ouyang, Xiaosen, Pietro Cirillo, Yuri Sautin, Shannon Mccall, James L. Bruchette, Anna Mae Diehl, Richard J. Johnson, and Manal F.

Medina, Marco Antonio Diaz. "Patent US20140154398 - Agave sweetener composition and crystallization process." Google Patents. June 5, 2014. Accessed August 10, 2017. https://www.google.com/patents/US20140154398.

Parker, Hilary. "A sweet problem: Princeton researchers find that high-fructose corn syrup prompts considerably more weight gain."

Princeton.Edu. March 22, 2010. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://www.princeton.edu/news/2010/03/22/sweet-problem-princeton-researchers-find-high-fructose-corn-syrup-prompts.

Rayssiguie, Y, et al. “HIgh Fructose Consumption Combined with Low Dietary Magnesium Intake May Increase the Incidence of the Metabolic Syndrome by Inducing Inflammation .” Magnes Res 19.4, vol. 19, no. 4, 2006, pp. 237–43.

Sidana, Jasmeen, Bikram Singh, and Om P. Sharma. "Saponins of Agave: Chemistry and bioactivity." Phytochemistry 130 (2016): 22–46. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.06.010.

Sievenpiper, John L., Russell J. De Souza, Arash Mirrahimi, Matthew E. Yu, Amanda J. Carleton, Joseph Beyene, Laura Chiavaroli, Marco Di Buono, Alexandra L. Jenkins, Lawrence A. Leiter, Thomas M.s. Wolever, Cyril W.c. Kendall, and David J. A. Jenkins. "Effect of Fructose on Body Weight in Controlled Feeding Trials." Annals of Internal Medicine 156, no. 4 (2012): 291. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-4-201202210-00007.

Thuy, Sabine, Ruth Ladurner, Valentina Volynets, Silvia Wagner, Stefan Strahl, Alfred Königsrainer, Klaus-Peter Maier, Stephan C. Bischoff, and Ina Bergheim. "Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans Is Associated with Increased Plasma Endotoxin and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Concentrations and with Fructose Intake." Journal of Nutrition 138, no. 8 (2008): 1452-455.

Yoshida, M., N. M. McKeown, G. Rogers, J. B. Meigs, E. Saltzman, R. D'Agostino, and P. F. Jacques. "Surrogate Markers of Insulin Resistance Are Associated with Consumption of Sugar-sweetened Drinks and Fruit Juice in Middle and Older-aged Adults." Journal of Nutrition 137, no. 9 (2007): 2121-127.


Ashwell, Margaret. "Stevia, Nature’s Zero-Calorie Sustainable Sweetener." Nutrition Today 50, no. 3 (2015): 129-34. doi:10.1097/nt.0000000000000094.

Baudier, Kaitlin M., Simon D. Kaschock-Marenda, Nirali Patel, Katherine L. Diangelus, Sean Odonnell, and Daniel R. Marenda. "Erythritol, a Non-Nutritive Sugar Alcohol Sweetener and the Main Component of Truvia®, Is a Palatable Ingested Insecticide." PLoS ONE9, no. 6 (2014). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098949.

Black, Richard M., Lawrence A. Leiter, and G.Harvey Anderson. "Consuming aspartame with and without taste: Differential effects on appetite and food intake of young adult males." Physiology & Behavior 53, no. 3 (1993): 459–66. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(93)90139-7.

Brown, Rebecca J., Mary Ann De Banate, and Kristina I. Rother. "Artificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youth." International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 5, no. 4 (2010): 305–12. doi:10.3109/17477160903497027.

Colditz, G. A., W. C. Willet, M. J. Stampfer, S. J. London, M. R. Segal, and F. E. Spezizer. "Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, no. 6 (June 1990): 1100–5.

Fowler, Sharon P., Ken Williams, Roy G. Resendez, Kelly J. Hunt, Helen P. Hazuda, and Michael P. Stern. "Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain." Obesity 16, no. 8 (2008): 1894–900. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.284.

Goyal, S. K., Samsher, and R. K. Goyal. "Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) a bio-sweetener: a review." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 61, no. 1 (2009): 1-10. doi:10.3109/09637480903193049.

Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung, Paul Chan, Yuh-Mou Sue, Ju-Chi Liu, Toong Hua Liang, Tsuei-Yuen Huang, Brian Tomlinson, Moses Sing Sum Chow, Pai-Feng Kao, and Yi-Jen Chen. "Efficacy and tolerability of oral stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension: A two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study." Clinical Therapeutics 25, no. 11 (2003): 2797-808. doi:10.1016/s0149-2918(03)80334-x

Lavin, J. H., S. J. French, and N. W. Read. "The effect of sucrose- and aspartame-sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters." International Journal of Obesity 21, no. 1 (1997): 37–42. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0800360.

Ly, Kiet A, et al. “Xylitol, Sweeteners, and Dental Caries .” Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 154–63.

Magnuson, B. A., G. A. Burdock, J. Doull, R. M. Kroes, G. M. Marsh, M. W. Pariza, P. S. Spencer, W. J. Waddell, R. Walker, and G. M. Williams. "Aspartame: A Safety Evaluation Based on Current Use Levels, Regulations, and Toxicological and Epidemiological Studies." Critical Reviews in Toxicology 37, no. 8 (2007): 629-727. doi:10.1080/10408440701516184.

Mattes, Richard. "Effects of aspartame and sucrose on hunger and energy intake in humans." Physiology & Behavior 47, no. 6 (1990): 1037–044. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(90)90350-d.

Momtazi-Borojeni, Amir Abbas, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Elham Abdollahi, and Amirhossein Sahebkar. "A Review on the Pharmacology and Toxicology of Steviol Glycosides Extracted from Stevia rebaudiana." Current Pharmaceutical Design 23, no. 11 (2017): 1616-622. doi:10.2174/1381612822666161021142835.

Porikos, K. P., G. Booth, and T. B. Van Itallie. "Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 30, no. 10 (October 1977): 1638-44.

Rogers, Peter J., Jo-Anne Carlyle, Andrew J. Hill, and John E. Blundell. "Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: Comparison of the effects of glucose and three intense sweeteners on hunger and food intake." Physiology & Behavior 43, no. 5 (1988): 547–52. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(88)90207-7.

Savita, S. M., K. Sheela, Sharan Sunanda,, A. G. Shankar, Parama Ramakrishnaamakrishna, and Srinivas Sakey. "Health Implications of Stevia Rebaudiana ." Journal of Human Ecology15, no. 3 (2004): 191-94.

Stellman, Steven D., and Lawrence Garfinkel. "Artificial sweetener use and one-year weight change among women." Preventive Medicine 15, no. 2 (1986): 195–202. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(86)90089-7.

Suez, Jotham, Tal Korem, David Zeevi, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Christoph A. Thaiss, Ori Maza, David Israeli, Niv Zmora, Shlomit Gilad, Adina Weinberger, Yael Kuperman, Alon Harmelin, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Hagit Shapiro, Zamir Halpern, Eran Segal, and Eran Elinav. "Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota." Nature, 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13793.

Swithers, Susan E., and Terry L. Davidson. "A role for sweet taste: Calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats." Behavioral Neuroscience 122, no. 1 (2008): 161–73. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.122.1.161.

Tamura, Motoi, Chigusa Hoshi, and Sachiko Hori. "Xylitol Affects the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolism of Daidzein in Adult Male Mice." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14, no. 12 (2013): 23993-4007. doi:10.3390/ijms141223993.

Valenstein, E. S., J. W. Kakolewski, and V. C. Cox. "Sex Differences in Taste Preference for Glucose and Saccharin Solutions." Science 156, no. 3777 (1967): 942–43. doi:10.1126/science.156.3777.942.

"What Is Aspartame? Get the Facts." Aspartame.org. Accessed August 21, 2017. https://aspartame.org/.

Yang, Quing. "Gain weight by “going diet?” Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings." Yale Journal of Biology And Medicine 83, no. 2 (June 2010): 101-08.


Craig, Winston John. "Nutrition Concerns and Health Effects of Vegetarian Diets." Nutrition in Clinical Practice 25, no. 6 (2010): 613-20. doi:10.1177/0884533610385707.

Key, T. J., P. N. Appleby, E. A. Spencer, R. C. Travis, A. W. Roddam, and N. E. Allen. "Mortality in British vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford)." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89, no. 5 (2009). doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736l.

Key, Timothy J., Gary E. Fraser, Margaret Thorogood, Paul N. Appleby, Valerie Beral, Gillian Reeves, Michael L. Burr, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rainer Frentzel-Beyme, Jan W. Kuzma, Jim Mann, and Klim Mcpherson. "Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies." Public Health Nutrition 1, no. 01 (1998). doi:10.1079/phn19980006.

Li, Duo. "Chemistry behind Vegetarianism." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59, no. 3 (2011): 777-84. doi:10.1021/jf103846u.

Pawlak, R., S. E. Lester, and T. Babatunde. "The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, no. 5 (2014): 541-48. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.46.

Pawlak, Roman, Scott James Parrott, Sudha Raj, Diana Cullum-Dugan, and Debbie Lucus. "How prevalent is vitamin B12deficiency among vegetarians?" Nutrition Reviews 71, no. 2 (2013): 110-17. doi:10.1111/nure.12001.

"What Causes Pernicious Anemia?" NIH National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. April 01, 2011. Accessed August 10, 2017. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/prnanmia/causes.


Baumeister, Roy F., Ellen Bratslavsky, Mark Muraven, and Dianne M. Tice. "Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource?" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, no. 5 (1998): 1252–265. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.74.5.1252.

Baumeister, Roy F., Kathleen D. Vohs, and Dianne M. Tice. "The Strength Model of Self-Control." Current Directions in Psychological Science 16, no. 6 (2007): 351-55. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00534.x.

Cheema, Amar, and Vanessa M. Patrick. "Anytime Versus Only: Mind-Sets Moderate the Effect of Expansive Versus Restrictive Frames on Promotion Evaluation." Journal of Marketing Research 45, no. 4 (2008): 462-72. doi:10.1509/jmkr.45.4.462.

Danziger, S., J. Levav, and L. Avnaim-Pesso. "Extraneous factors in judicial decisions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 17 (2011): 6889–892. doi:10.1073/pnas.1018033108.

Dickinson, Anthony, and Bernard Balleine. "Motivational Control of Instrumental Action." Current Directions in Psychological Science 4, no. 5 (1995): 162–67. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep11512272.

Dokken, B. B., and T.-S. Tsao. "The Physiology of Body Weight Regulation: Are We Too Efficient for Our Own Good?" Diabetes Spectrum 20, no. 3 (2007): 166-70. doi:10.2337/diaspect.20.3.166.

Gailliot, M. T., R. F. Baumeister, C. N. DeWall, J. K. Maner, E. A. Plant, D. M. Tice, L. E. Brewer, and B. J. Schmeichel. "Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: willpower is more than a metaphor." J Pers Soc Psychol 92, no. 2 (February 2007): 325-36.

Gollwitzer, Peter M. "Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans." American Psychologist54, no. 7 (1999): 493-503. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.54.7.493.

Gollwitzer , P., and John A. Bargh. The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior. Guilford, 1996.

Implicit theories as organizers of goals and behavior ( Carol S. Dweck, pp. 69–90)

Gorin, Amy, Suzanne Phelan, Deborah Tate, Nancy Sherwood, Robert Jeffery, and Rena Wing. "Involving Support Partners in Obesity Treatment." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 73, no. 2 (2005): 341-43. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.73.2.341

Kahan, D., M. T. et al. "Conformity and dietary disinhibition: a test of the ego-strength model of self-regulation.” International Journal of Eating Disorders 33, no. 2, 165–71. Accessed March 2003.

Neal, David, Wendy Wood, and Jeffrey M. Quinn. "Habits—A Repeat Performance." Current Directions in Psychological Science 15, no. 4 (2006): 198–202. https://dornsife.usc.edu/assets/sites/208/docs/Neal.Wood.Quinn.2006.pdf.

Neal, David T., Wendy Wood, Mengju Wu, and David Kurlander. "The Pull of the Past: When Do Habits Persist Despite Conflict With Motives?" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37, no. 11 (2011): 1428-437. doi:10.1177/0146167211419863.

Oyserman, Daphna . "Possible selves: identity-based Motivation and school success." 270-80. https://dornsife.usc.edu/assets/sites/782/docs/marsh_oyserman_c011_1_.pdf.

Patrick, Vanessa M., and Henrik Hagtvedt. "“I Don’t” versus “I Can’t”: When Empowered Refusal Motivates Goal-Directed Behavior." Journal of Consumer Research 39, no. 2 (2012): 371-81. doi:10.1086/663212.

Quinn, Jeffrey M., Anthony Pascoe, Wendy Wood, and David T. Neal. "Can’t Control Yourself? Monitor Those Bad Habits." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36, no. 4 (2010): 499–511. doi:10.1177/0146167209360665.

Taylor, S. E., L. B. Pham, I. D. Rivkin, and D. A. Armor. "Harnessing the imagination. Mental simulation, self-regulation, and coping." Am Psychol53, no. 4 (April 1998): 429-39.

Vohs, Kathleen D., and Todd F. Heatherton. "Self-Regulatory Failure: A Resource-Depletion Approach." Psychological Science 11, no. 3 (2000): 249–54. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00250.

"What You Need to Know about Willpower: The Psychological Science of Self-Control." American Psychological Association, 2016, 5-7. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/willpower-limited-resource.pdf.


Ábel, Tatjána, Anna Blázovics, Alexandra Wimmer, Gabriella Bekő, Balázs Gaál, Balázs Blazics, Mohamed Gamal Eldin, János †fehér, and Gabriella Lengyel. "Effect of Pintes white wine on metabolic parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome." Orvosi Hetilap 153, no. 22 (2012): 861-65. doi:10.1556/oh.2012.29389.

Arbertson, James F., Ryan E. Hodgins, Lisa N. Hurston, Larry J. Schaffer, Matthew S. Reid, Josie L. Landon, Carolyn F. Ross, and Douglas O. Adams. "Variability of Tannin Concentration in Red Wines." Am J Enol Vitic 59 (June 2008): 210-14. Accessed August 17, 2017. http://www.ajevonline.org/content/59/2/210

Acquaviva, R. et al. "Cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside as DNA cleavage protectors and antioxidants." Cell Biology and Toxicology 19, no. 4 (2003): 243–52. doi:10.1023/b:cbto.0000003974.27349.4e

Aquilano, Katia, Sara Baldelli, Giuseppe Rotilio, and Maria Rosa Ciriolo. "Role of Nitric Oxide Synthases in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review on the Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Polyphenols." Neurochemical Research 33, no. 12 (2008): 2416–426. doi:10.1007/s11064-008-9697-6.

Barger, Jamie L. et al "A Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol Partially Mimics Caloric Restriction and Retards Aging Parameters in Mice." PLoS ONE 3, no. 6 (2008). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002264

Beckman, Carl H. "Phenolic-storing cells: keys to programmed cell death and periderm formation in wilt disease resistance and in general defence responses in plants?" Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 57, no. 3 (2000): 101–10.

Biesaga, Magdalena. "Influence of extraction methods on stability of flavonoids." Journal of Chromatography A 1218, no. 18 (2011): 2505-512. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.02.059.

Boulton , Roger. "The copigmentation of anthocyanins and its role in the color of red wine: A Critical Review." Am J Enol Vitic 52 (January 2001): 67-87. Accessed August 17, 2017. http://www.ajevonline.org/content/52/2/67.

Chang, Jaewon, Agnes Rimando, Merce Pallas, Antoni Camins, David Porquet, Jennifer Reeves, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Mark A. Smith, James A. Joseph, and Gemma Casadesus. "Low-dose pterostilbene, but not resveratrol, is a potent neuromodulator in aging and Alzheimers disease." Neurobiology of Aging 33, no. 9 (2012): 2062-071. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.08.01

Chen, Wen-Pin, Tzong-Cherng Chi, Lee-Ming Chuang, and Ming-Jai Su. "Resveratrol enhances insulin secretion by blocking KATP and KV channels of beta cells." European Journal of Pharmacology 568, no. 1-3 (2007): 269–77. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.04.062.

Chiou, Yi-Siou, Mei-Ling Tsai, Kalyanam Nagabhushanam, Yin-Jen Wang, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, and Min-Hsiung Pan. "Pterostilbene Is More Potent than Resveratrol in Preventing Azoxymethane (AOM)-Induced Colon Tumorigenesis via Activation of the NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2)-Mediated Antioxidant Signaling Pathway." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry59, no. 6 (2011): 2725-733. doi:10.1021/jf2000103

Chirumbolo, Salvatore. "Role of quercetin in vascular physiology." Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 90, no. 12 (2012): 1652–657. doi:10.1139/y2012-137.

Chung, King-Thom, Cheng-I Wei, and Michael G. Johnson. "Are tannins a double-edged sword in biology and health?" Trends in Food Science & Technology 9, no. 4 (1998): 168-75. doi:10.1016/s0924-2244(98)00028-4

Chung, King-Thom, Tit Yee Wong, Cheng-I Wei, Yao-Wen Huang, and Yuan Lin. "Tannins and Human Health: A Review." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 38, no. 6 (1998): 421-64. doi:10.1080/10408699891274273

Corder, R. et al "Oenology: Red wine procyanidins and vascular health." Nature 444, no. 7119 (2006): 566. doi:10.1038/444566a.

Cucciolla, Valeria et al. "Resveratrol: From Basic Science to the Clinic." Cell Cycle 6, no. 20 (2007): 2495–510. doi:10.4161/cc.6.20.4815.

Dani, C. et al. "Phenolic content and antioxidant activities of white and purple juices manufactured with organically- or conventionally-produced grapes." Food and Chemical Toxicology 45, no. 12 (2007): 2574–580. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.022.

Das, Dipak K., Subhendu Mukherjee, and Diptarka Ray. "Erratum to: Resveratrol and red wine, healthy heart and longevity." Heart Failure Reviews 16, no. 4 (2011): 425–35. doi:10.1007/s10741-011-9234-6.

Dolinsky, Vernon W. et al. "Improvements in skeletal muscle strength and cardiac function induced by resveratrol during exercise training contribute to enhanced exercise performance in rats." The Journal of Physiology 590, no. 11 (2012): 2783–799. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2012.230490.

Esteban-Fernández, A., C. et al. "Neuroprotective Effects of Selected Microbial-Derived Phenolic Metabolites and Aroma Compounds from Wine in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells and Their Putative Mechanisms of Action." Frontiers in Nutrition 4 (2017). doi:10.3389/fnut.2017.00003.

Fantini, Massimo, Monica Benvenuto, Laura Masuelli, Giovanni Frajese, Ilaria Tresoldi, Andrea Modesti, and Roberto Bei. "In Vitro and in Vivo Antitumoral Effects of Combinations of Polyphenols, or Polyphenols and Anticancer Drugs: Perspectives on Cancer Treatment." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16, no. 5 (2015): 9236-282. doi:10.3390/ijms16059236.

Fresco, P., F. Borges, M. Marques, and C. Diniz. "The Anticancer Properties of Dietary Polyphenols and its Relation with Apoptosis." Current Pharmaceutical Design 16, no. 1 (2010): 114-34. doi:10.2174/138161210789941856

Friedman, Mendel, and Carol E. Levin. "Analysis and Biological Activities of Potato Glycoalkaloids, Calystegine Alkaloids, Phenolic Compounds, and Anthocyanins." Advances in Potato Chemistry and Technology, 2009, 127-61. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-374349-7.00006-4

Garaguso, Ivana, and Mirella Nardini. "Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines." Food Chemistry 179 (2015): 336-42. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.144.

Gepner, Yftach et al. "Differential Effect of Initiating Moderate Red Wine Consumption on 24-h Blood Pressure by Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes: Randomized Trial in Type 2 Diabetes." American Journal of Hypertension 29, no. 4 (2015): 476–83. doi:10.1093/ajh/hpv126.

Giacosa, Attilio et al. "Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity." Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56, no. 4 (2014): 635–40. doi:10.1080/10408398.2012.747484

González-Vallinas, Margarita, Marta González-Castejón, Arantxa Rodríguez-Casado, and Ana Ramírez De Molina. "Dietary phytochemicals in cancer prevention and therapy: a complementary approach with promising perspectives." Nutrition Reviews 71, no. 9 (2013): 585-99. doi:10.1111/nure.12051.

Gorelik, Shlomit, Moshe Ligumsky, Ron Kohen, and Joseph Kanner. "The Stomach as a “Bioreactor”: When Red Meat Meets Red Wine." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, no. 13 (2008): 5002-007. doi:10.1021/jf703700d

Gris, E.f., F. Mattivi, E.a. Ferreira, U. Vrhovsek, D.w. Filho, R.c. Pedrosa, and M.t. Bordignon-Luiz. "Phenolic profile and effect of regular consumption of Brazilian red wines on in vivo antioxidant activity." Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 31, no. 1 (2013): 31-40. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2013.03.002

Hansen, A. S., P. Marckmann, L. O. Dragsted, I-L Finné Nielsen, S. E. Nielsen, and M. Grønbæk. "Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, no. 3 (2005): 449-55. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602107.

Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B., and Bharat B. Aggarwal. "Resveratrol: A multitargeted agent for age-associated chronic diseases." Cell Cycle 7, no. 8 (2008): 1020-035. doi:10.4161/cc.7.8.5740

He, Fei, Na-Na Liang, Lin Mu, Qiu-Hong Pan, Jun Wang, Malcolm J. Reeves, and Chang-Qing Duan. "Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression." Molecules 17, no. 12 (2012): 1571-601. doi:10.3390/molecules1702157

Hou, De-Xing. "Potential Mechanisms of Cancer Chemoprevention by Anthocyanins." Current Molecular Medicine 3, no. 2 (2003): 149–59. doi:10.2174/1566524033361555

Kapetanovic, Izet M., Miguel Muzzio, Zhihua Huang, Thomas N. Thompson, and David L. Mccormick. "Pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and metabolic profile of resveratrol and its dimethylether analog, pterostilbene, in rats." Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 68, no. 3 (2010): 593-601. doi:10.1007/s00280-010-1525-4

Katz, Solomon H. The Origins and Ancient History of Wine Food and Nutrition in History and Antropology. Edited by Patrick E. McGovern and Stuart J. Fleming. The Netherlands: Gordon And Breach Publishers, 2015.

Koleckar, Vit, Katerina Kubikova, Zuzana Rehakova, Kamil Kuca, Daniel Jun, Ludek Jahodar, and Lubomir Opletal. "Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins as Antioxidants Influencing the Health." Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 8, no. 5 (2008): 436-47. doi:10.2174/138955708784223486

Kwon, Jung Yeon, Sang Gwon Seo, Yong-Seok Heo, Shuhua Yue, Ji-Xin Cheng, Ki Won Lee, and Kee-Hong Kim. "Piceatannol, Natural Polyphenolic Stilbene, Inhibits Adipogenesis via Modulation of Mitotic Clonal Expansion and Insulin Receptor-dependent Insulin Signaling in Early Phase of Differentiation." Journal of Biological Chemistry 287, no. 14 (2012): 11566-1578. doi:10.1074/jbc.m111.259721.

Kennedy, D. O. et all. "Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 6 (2010): 1590–597. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28641.

Kok, Theo M. De, Simone G. Van Breda, and Margaret M. Manson. "Mechanisms of combined action of different chemopreventive dietary compounds." European Journal of Nutrition 47, no. S2 (2008): 51-59. doi:10.1007/s00394-008-2006-y

Kris-Etherton, Penny M. et al. "Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer." The American Journal of Medicine 113, no. 9 (2002): 71–88. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(01)00995-0.

Kopp, P. “Resveratrol, a Phytoestrogen Found in Red Wine. A Possible Explanation for the Conundrum of the 'French Paradox'?” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 138, no. 6 (1998): pp. 619–20.

Kosuru, Ramoji, Uddipak Rai, Swati Prakash, Abhishank Singh, and Sanjay Singh. "Promising therapeutic potential of pterostilbene and its mechanistic insight based on preclinical evidence." European Journal of Pharmacology 789 (2016): 229–43. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.07.046.

Lewandowska, Hanna, Monika Kalinowska, Włodzimierz Lewandowski, Tomasz M. Stępkowski, and Kamil Brzóska. "The role of natural polyphenols in cell signaling and cytoprotection against cancer development." The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 32 (2016): 1–19. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.11.006.

Li, An-Na, Sha Li, Yu-Jie Zhang, Xiang-Rong Xu, Yu-Ming Chen, and Hua-Bin Li. "Resources and Biological Activities of Natural Polyphenols." Nutrients 6, no. 12 (2014): 6020-047. doi:10.3390/nu6126020

Lila, Mary Ann. "Anthocyanins and Human Health: An In Vitro Investigative Approach." Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, no. 5 (2004): 306–13. doi:10.1155/s111072430440401x

Marcadenti, Melissa Markoski, Juliano Garavaglia, Aline Oliveira, and Jessica Olivaes. "Molecular Properties of Red Wine Compounds and Cardiometabolic Benefits." Nutrition and Metabolic Insights, 2016, 51. doi:10.4137/nmi.s32909.

Markus, M. Andrea, and Brian J. Morris. "Resveratrol in prevention and treatment of common clinical conditions of aging." Clin Interv Aging 3, no. 2 (June 2008): 331–39. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2546476/

Mattivi, F., R. Guzzon, U. Vrhovsek, M. Stefanini, and R. Velasco. "Metabolite profiling of grape: Flavonols and anthocyanins." J Agric Food Chem 54, no. 20 (October 4, 2006): 7692-02. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17002441

Mccalley, Audrey, Simon Kaja, Andrew Payne, and Peter Koulen. "Resveratrol and Calcium Signaling: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance." Molecules 19, no. 6 (2014): 7327–340. doi:10.3390/molecules19067327

Micallef, Michelle, Louise Lexis, and Paul Lewandowski. "Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans." Nutrition Journal 6, no. 1 (2007). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-6-27.

Migliori, Massimiliano, Vincenzo Panichi, Rafael De La Torre, Montserrat Fit, Maribel Covas, Alberto Bertelli, Daniel MuOz-Aguayo, Alessia Scatena, Sabrina Paoletti, and Claudio Ronco. "Anti-Inflammatory Effect of White Wine in CKD Patients and Healthy Volunteers." Blood Purification 39, no. 1-3 (2015): 218-23. doi:10.1159/000371570.

Mojzer, Eva Brglez, Maša Knez Hrnčič, Mojca Škerget, Željko Knez, and Urban Bren. "Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects." Molecules 21, no. 7 (2016): 901. doi:10.3390/molecules2107090

Momken, I. et al. "Resveratrol prevents the wasting disorders of mechanical unloading by acting as a physical exercise mimetic in the rat." The FASEB Journal 25, no. 10 (2011): 3646–660. doi:10.1096/fj.10-177295.

Moss, Ryan, Qinyong Mao, Dennis Taylor, and Cédric Saucier. "Investigation of monomeric and oligomeric wine stilbenoids in red wines by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry." Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 27, no. 16 (2013): 1815-827. doi:10.1002/rcm.6636.

Okla, Meshail et al. "Ellagic acid modulates lipid accumulation in primary human adipocytes and human hepatoma Huh7 cells via discrete mechanisms." The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 26, no. 1 (2015): 82–90. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.09.010.

Okuda, Takuo, and Hideyuki Ito. "Tannins of Constant Structure in Medicinal and Food Plants—Hydrolyzable Tannins and Polyphenols Related to Tannins." Molecules 16, no. 12 (2011): 2191-217. doi:10.3390/molecules16032191

Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi. "Plant Polyphenols as Dietary Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease." Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2, no. 5 (2009): 270–78. doi:10.4161/oxim.2.5.9498.

Parr, Adrian J. and G. Paul Bolwell. "Phenols in the plant and in man. The potential for possible nutritional enhancement of the diet by modifying the phenols content or profile." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, no. 7 (May 15, 2000): 985–1012. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227963605_Phenols_in_the_plant_and_in_man_The_potential_for_possible_nutritional_enhancement_of_the_diet_by_modifying_the_phenols_content_or_profile.

Peltz, Lindsay et al. "Resveratrol Exerts Dosage and Duration Dependent Effect on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Development." PLoS ONE 7, no. 5 (2012). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037162

Pirola, Luciano and Sara Fröjdö. "Resveratrol: One molecule, many targets." IUBMB Life 60, no. 5 (2008): 323–32. doi:10.1002/iub.47.

Prinz, J. F. and P. W. Lucas. "Saliva tannin interactions." J Oral Rehabil 27, no. 11 (November 2000): 991–4. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11106991

Ramos, Sonia. "Cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy: Dietary polyphenols and signalling pathways." Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 52, no. 5 (2008): 507–26. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700326.

Remsberg, C. M., J. A. Yáñez, Y. OOhgami, K. R. Ega-Villa, A. M. Rimando, and N. M. Davies. "Pharmacometrics of pterostilbene: preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activity." Phytother Res 22, no. 2 (February 2008): 169-79. Accessed August 17, 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17726731

Rossetto, Monica, Paola Vanzani, Lucio Zennaro, Fulvio Mattivi, Urska Vrhovsek, Marina Scarpa, and Adelio Rigo. "Stable Free Radicals and Peroxyl Radical Trapping Capacity in Red Wines." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, no. 20 (2004): 6151-155. doi:10.1021/jf0493829

Rossetto, Monica, Paola Vanzani, Michele Lunelli, Marina Scarpa, Fulvio Mattivi, and Adelio Rigo. "Peroxyl radical trapping activity of anthocyanins and generation of free radical intermediates." Free Radical Research 41, no. 7 (2007): 854-59. doi:10.1080/10715760701261533.

Ruf, J. C. "Wine and polyphenols related to platelet aggregation and atherothrombosis." Drugs Exp Clin Res 25, no. 2-3 (1999): 125–31.

Saleem, T.S. Mohamed and S. Darbar Basha. "Red wine: A drink to your heart." Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research 1, no. 4 (2010): 171–76. doi:10.4103/0975-3583.74259.

Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian, Camilo Lopez-Alarcón, Margarita E. Aliaga, and Hernán Speisky. "Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and its protection by quercetin via a coenzyme Q-like action." Chemico-Biological Interactions 199, no. 1 (2012): 18–28. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2012.05.006.

Scholey, Andrew, Sarah Benson, Con Stough, and Creina Stockley. "Effects of resveratrol and alcohol on mood and cognitive function in older individuals.” Nutrition and Aging 2, no. 2,3 (2014): 133–138. Accessed August 17, 2017.

Seyed, Mohamed Ali, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, and Kavitha Vijayaraghavan. "A Comprehensive Review on the Chemotherapeutic Potential of Piceatannol for Cancer Treatment, with Mechanistic Insights." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64, no. 4 (2016): 725-37. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.5b05993.

Shakibaei, Mehdi, Kuzhuvelil B. Harikumar, and Bharat B. Aggarwal. "Resveratrol addiction: To die or not to die." Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 53, no. 1 (2009): 115–28. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200800148.

Shimizu, Makoto, Juan Li, Jun Inoue, and Ryuichiro Sato. "Quercetin Represses Apolipoprotein B Expression by Inhibiting the Transcriptional Activity of C/EBPβ." Plos One 10, no. 4 (2015). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0121784.

Singh, Manjeet et al. "Challenges for Research on Polyphenols from Foods in Alzheimer’s Disease: Bioavailability, Metabolism, and Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, no. 13 (2008): 4855–873. doi:10.1021/jf0735073.

Streppel, M. T., M. C. Ocke, H. C. Boshuizen, F. J. Kok, and D. Kromhout. "Long-term wine consumption is related to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy independently of moderate alcohol intake: the Zutphen Study." Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 63, no. 7 (2009): 534–40. doi:10.1136/jech.2008.082198.

Szeto, Y., & Benzie, I. F. (2002). Effects of Dietary Antioxidants on Human DNA Ex Vivo. Free Radical Research, 36(1), 113-118. doi:10.1080/10715760210161

Tabrez, Shams, Medha Priyadarshini, Maryam Urooj, Shazi Shakil, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Qamre Alam, Nasimudeen R. Jabir, Adel Mohammad Abuzenadah, Adeel G. A. Chaudhary, and Ghazi Abdullah Damanhouri. "Cancer Chemoprevention by Polyphenols and Their Potential Application as Nanomedicine." Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C 31, no. 1 (2013): 67-98. doi:10.1080/10590501.2013.763577.

Tanigawa, Tomoko et al. "( )-Catechin protects dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis." BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14, no. 1 (2014): doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-133

Tillu, Dipti V. et al. "Resveratrol Engages AMPK to Attenuate ERK and mTOR Signaling in Sensory Neurons and Inhibits Incision-Induced Acute and Chronic Pain." Molecular Pain 8 (2012). doi:10.1186/1744-8069-8-5

Velazquez, K. T. et al. "Quercetin Supplementation Attenuates the Progression of Cancer Cachexia in ApcMin/ Mice." Journal of Nutrition 144, no. 6 (2014): 868–75. doi:10.3945/jn.113.188367.

Wang, S. et al. "Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in white fat through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1." International Journal of Obesity 39, no. 6 (2015): 967–76. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.23

Xia, En-Qin, Gui-Fang Deng, Ya-Jun Guo, and Hua-Bin Li. "Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 11, no. 2 (2010): 622-46. doi:10.3390/ijms11020622.

Xie, Yixi, and Xiaoqing Chen. "Structures Required of Polyphenols for Inhibiting Advanced Glycation end Products Formation." Current Drug Metabolism 14, no. 4 (2013): 414-31. doi:10.2174/1389200211314040005.

Yi, Liu, Yang Zongyuan, Gong Cheng, Zhang Lingyun, Yu Guilian, and Gong Wei. "Quercetin enhances apoptotic effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in ovarian cancer cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP)-death receptor 5 pathway." Cancer Science 105, no. 5 (2014): 520-27. doi:10.1111/cas.12395.

Yuan, H., and R. Marmorstein. "Red Wine, Toast of the Town (Again)." Science 339, no. 6124 (2013): 1156-157. doi:10.1126/science.1236463


Lake, J. K., C. Power, and T. J. Cole. "Women's reproductive health: the role of body mass index in early and adult life." Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21, no. 6 (June 1997): 432-38.

Lovejoy, J. C., C. M. Champagne, L. De Jonge, H. Xie, and S. R. Smith. "Increased visceral fat and decreased energy expenditure during the menopausal transition." International Journal of Obesity 32, no. 6 (2008): 949–58. doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.25.

Lumey, L. H. "Reproductive outcomes in women prenatally exposed to undernutrition: a review of findings from the Dutch famine birth cohort." Proc Nutr Soc. 57, no. 1 (February 1998): 129-35.

Martin, Bronwen, Michele Pearson, Randall Brenneman, Erin Golden, Alex Keselman, Titilola Iyun, Olga D. Carlson, Josephine M. Egan, Kevin G. Becker, William Wood, Vinayakumar Prabhu, Rafael De Cabo, Stuart Maudsley, and Mark P. Mattson. "Conserved and Differential Effects of Dietary Energy Intake on the Hippocampal Transcriptomes of Females and Males." PLoS ONE 3, no. 6 (2008). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002398.

Nair, Pradeepm.k, and Pranavg Khawale. "Role of therapeutic fasting in womens health: An overview." Journal of Mid-life Health 7, no. 2 (2016): 61. doi:10.4103/0976-7800.185325.

Nelson, James F., Roger G. Gosden, and Lêda S. Felicio. "Effect of Dietary Restriction on Estrous Cyclicity and Follicular Reserves in Aging C57BL/6J Mice1." Biology of Reproduction 32, no. 3 (1985): 515-22. doi:10.1095/biolreprod32.3.515.

Shahabi, Sima, Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh, Masoumeh Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Mahboubeh Faramarzi, Ali Reza Firouzjahee,, and Tayebeh Esmaeili. "Does Islamic Fasting Affect Gonadotropin around Female Ovulation?" Royan Institute International Journal of Fertility and Sterility 4, no. 3 (2010): 94–97.

Soules, M. R., M. C. Merriggiola, R- A. Steiner, D. K. Clifton, B. Toivola, and W. J. Bremner. "Short-term fasting in normal women: absence of effects on gonadotrophin secretion and the menstrual cycle." Clinical Endocrinology 40, no. 6 (1994): 725–31. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.1994.tb02505.x.

Van Dam, Eveline W. C. M., Ferdinand Roelfsema, Johannes D. Veldhuis, Frans M. Helmerhorst, Marijke Frölich, A. Edo Meinders, H. Michiel J. Krans, and Hanno Pijl. "Increase in daily LH secretion in response to short-term calorie restriction in obese women with PCOS." American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology And Metabolism 282, no. 4 (2001). doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00458.2001

Zangeneh, Farideh, Nasrin Abedinia, Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh, Reza Salman Yazdi, and Tahereh Madani. "The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Hypothalamic Pituitary Ovarian (HPO) Axis in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome." Women’s Health Bulletin, no. 1 (2014). doi:10.17795/intjsh-18962.


Allen, L. H. "How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89, no. 2 (2009). doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.26947a.

Chan, Y.-M., R. Bailey, and D. L. Oconnor. "Folate." Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 4, no. 1 (2013): 123-25. doi:10.3945/an.112.003392.

Christensen, K. E., L. G. Mikael, K.-Y. Leung, N. Levesque, L. Deng, Q. Wu, O. V. Malysheva, A. Best, M. A. Caudill, N. D. Greene, and R. Rozen. "High folic acid consumption leads to pseudo-MTHFR deficiency, altered lipid metabolism, and liver injury in mice." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101, no. 3 (2015): 646-58. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.086603.

Dawson-Hughes, Bess, Robert P. Heaney, Michael F. Holick, Paul Lips, Pierre J. Meunier, and Reinhold Vieth. "Estimates of optimal vitamin D status." Osteoporosis International 16, no. 7 (2005): 713-16. doi:10.1007/s00198-005-1867-7

Dieter, Brad P., Brad Jon Schoenfeld, and Alan A. Aragon. "The data do not seem to support a benefit to BCAA supplementation during periods of caloric restriction." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 13, no. 1 (2016). doi:10.1186/s12970-016-0128-9.

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12." NIH National Institute of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. February 11, 2016. Accessed August 10, 2017. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/#en1.

Fellers, Carl R., PHD. "Nutritive Value of Cranberries." American Journal of Public Health, January 1933, 13-18.

Forrest, Kimberly Y.z., and Wendy L. Stuhldreher. "Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults." Nutrition Research 31, no. 1 (2011): 48–54. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2010.12.001.

Greenbery, James, Stacey J. Bell, Yong Guan, and Yan-hong Yu. "Folic Acid Supplementation and Pregnancy: More Than Just Neural Tube Defect Prevention." Rev Obstet Gynecol 4, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 52-59.

Haldimann, M., A. Alt, A. Blanc, and K. Blondeau. "Iodine content of food groups." Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 18, no. 6 (2005): 461-71. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.06.003.

Oh, R, and D L Brown. “Vitamin B12 Deficiency .” American Family Physician , vol. 67, no. 5, 2003, pp. 979–86.

Rizzo, Gianluca, Antonio Laganà, Agnese Rapisarda, Gioacchina La Ferrera, Massimo Buscema, Paola Rossetti, Angela Nigro, Vincenzo Muscia, Gaetano Valenti, Fabrizio Sapia, Giuseppe Sarpietro, Micol Zigarelli, and Salvatore Vitale. "Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation." Nutrients 8, no. 12 (2016): 767. doi:10.3390/nu8120767.

Rusher, D. R., and R. Pawlak. "A Review of 89 Published Case Studies of Vitamin B12 Deficiencies." Journal of Human Nutrition & Food Science 1, no. 2 (September 2, 2013): 1-12.

McNulty, Helene, Barbera Delange, Victoria Drake, and Jane Higdon. "Folate." Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience 32, no. 2 (2007): 80–82.

Maclaughlin, J., M. F. Holick, and K. Kasper. "Aging Decreases the Capacity of Human Skin to Produce Vitamin D3." Nutrition in Clinical Practice 1, no. 1 (1986): 57-58. doi:10.1177/088453368600100118.

Morris, M. S., P. F. Jacques, I. H. Rosenberg, and J. Selhub. "Circulating unmetabolized folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive test performance in American seniors." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91, no. 6 (2010): 1733-744. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28671.

Murray, Frank. 100 Super Supplements for a Longer Life. Los Angeles, CA: Keats Pub., 2000.

Norman, A. W. "From Vitamin D to hormone D: Fundamentals of the Vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health." Am J Clin Nutr 88, no. 2 (August 2008): 491S-99S.

Planta, M. B. "Sunscreen and Melanoma: Is Our Prevention Message Correct?" The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 24, no. 6 (2011): 735-39. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2011.06.100178.

Stver, P. J. "Physiology of folate and vitamin B12 in health and disease." Nutrition Reviews 62, no. 6(2) (June 2004): S3-12.

Tran, Thach Duc, Basil Hetzel, and Jane Fisher. "Access to iodized salt in 11 low- and lower-middle-income countries: 2000 and 2010." Bulletin Of The World Health Organization. December 1, 2015. Accessed August 10, 2017. http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/94/2/15-160036/en/.

Yetley, E. A., C. M. Pfeiffer, K. W. Phinney, R. L. Bailey, S. Blackmore, J. L. Bock, L. C. Brody, R. Carmel, L. R. Curtin, R. A. Durazo-Arvizu, J. H. Eckfeldt, R.

Green, J. F. Gregory, A. N. Hoofnagle, D. W. Jacobsen, P. F. Jacques, D. A. Lacher, A. M. Molloy, J. Massaro, J. L. Mills, E. Nexo, J. I. Rader, J. Selhub, C. Sempos, B. Shane, S. Stabler, P. Stover, T. Tamura, A. Tedstone, S. J. Thorpe, P. M. Coates, C. L. Johnson, and M. F. Picciano. "Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary1,5." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94, no. 1 (2011). doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.013243.


Brandhorst, Sebastian et al. "A Periodic Diet that Mimics Fasting Promotes Multi-System Regeneration, Enhanced Cognitive Performance, and Healthspan." Cell Metabolism 22, no. 1 (2015): 86–99. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.05.012.

Bronson, F. H. “Climate change and seasonal reproduction in mammals.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364, no. 1534 (October 15, 2009): 3331–340, https://doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0140.

Chance, B., H. Sies, and A. Boveris. "Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs." Physiological Reviews 59, no. 3 (July 1979): 527-605.

Cheng, Chia-Wei, Gregor B. Adams, Laura Perin, Min Wei, Xiaoying Zhou, Ben S. Lam, Stefano Da Sacco, Mario Mirisola, David I. Quinn, Tanya B. Dorff, John J. Kopchick, and Valter D. Longo. "Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression." Cell Stem Cell 14, no. 6 (2014): 810-23. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014.

Dunbar, Robin I.M. "The social brain hypothesis." Evolutionary Anthropology 6, no. 5 (December 7, 1998): 178-90.

Galvin, M. J., and A. M. Lefer. "Preservation of hepatic cell integrity by aprotinin in hypoxia." Life Sci. 20, no. 12 (June 15, 1977): 1969-78.

Jiang, Y.-L., and Z.-P. Liu. "Natural Products as Anti-Invasive and Anti-Metastatic Agents." Current Medicinal Chemistry 18, no. 6 (2011): 808-29. doi:10.2174/092986711794927711.

Lessiani, Gianfranco, Francesca Santilli, Andrea Boccatonda, Pierpaolo Iodice, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Raoul Saggini, and Giovanni Davì. "Arterial stiffness and sedentary lifestyle: Role of oxidative stress." Vascular Pharmacology 79 (2016): 1-5. doi:10.1016/j.vph.2015.05.017.

ains, Rhythm, and Vivekkumar Bains. "The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health." Dental Research Journal 12, no. 5 (2015): 389. doi:10.4103/1735-3327.166169.

Sonksen, P., and J. Sonksen. "Insulin: understanding its action in health and disease." BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia 85, no. 1 (2000): 69-79. doi:10.1093/bja/85.1.69.

Stephan, F. K. "The "other" circadian system: food as a Zeitgeber." J Biol Rhythms. 17, no. 4 (August 2002): 284-92.

"The Structures of Life: Chapter 1: Proteins are the Body's Worker Molecules." National Institute of General Medical Sciences. October 27, 2011. Accessed August 09, 2017. https://publications.nigms.nih.gov/structlife/chapter1.html.

Tom, A., and K. S. Nair. "Assessment of branched-chain amino Acid status and potential for biomarkers." The Journal of Nutrition 136, no. 1 (January 2006): 324S-0S.

Vyver, Ellie, Cathleen Steinegger, and Debra K. Katzman. "Eating Disorders and Menstrual Dysfunction in Adolescents." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1135, no. 1 (2008): 253-64. doi:10.1196/annals.1429.013

Tom, Andrea, and K. S. Nair. "Assessment of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Status and Potential for Biomarkers." J. Nutr. 136, no. 1 (January 2006): 324S-30S.

Westerterp, Klaas R. “Diet Induced Thermogenesis.” Nutrition & Metabolism 1, no. 5 (August 18, 2004): https://doi:10.1186/1743-7075-1-5.

Wilmore, Douglas W., James M. Long, Arthur D. Mason, Robert W. Skreen, and Basil A. Pruitt. "Catecholamines." Annals of Surgery 180, no. 4 (1974): 653-69. doi:10.1097/00000658-197410000-00031.